Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Research Methods and Statistics

Presentations over study of research methods and psychological testing for AP Psychology.
by

Derek Miller

on 14 September 2018

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Research Methods and Statistics

Research Methods

And

Statistics

Statistics in Psych Research
Doing Psychological Research
- Hypothesis
- Operational Definitions
* Operationalize... clearly define research variables for measurement purposes
- Method
...How will we gather the data?
- Conclusion
...Prediction about what you think will happen
...allows study to be REPLICATED
Sampling
Target Population
Sample
(group you want to study)
Random Sample
Representative
Bias and Expectancy
- Researcher Bias
- Social Desirability
(SLANTING the results toward a desired outcome)
(responding according to expected response)
- Placebo Effect
- Hawthorne Effect
A Bit About Ethics
participant response according to perception of what researcher wants
Respond or behave in a way to be perceived favorably
Experimental Research Methods
Working Hypothesis
Operational Definitions
Design
Variables
Experimental Group
Control Group
Setting up the Experiment...
Develop a
Determine
Independent Variable (I.V.)
is manipulated
Dependent Variable (D.V.)
is measured
Establish
of the variables
Decide on
Single-Blind
participants don't know
Double-Blind
experimenter and participants don't know
Watch out for
CONFOUNDING
Variables
Doing the Experiment...
OR
Target Population
Random Selection
Random Assignment
gets the Independent Variable
gets everything EXCEPT the I.V.
Measure and Compare
the Dependent Variable
Inferential Statistics
Purpose:
Determine IF data from experiment is "statistically significant"
How it's done:
If p <.05... likely NOT due to chance
Topic: Psychological Testing
Page: 17
We will...
Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity; Identify frequently used assessment strategies for personality testing, and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of these instruments
Writing: Statistical Significance (Maybe!)
Personality Testing
Preview:
For the Preview on L17 write down the WORST test you have ever taken and exaclty WHY it was a bad test (NO teachers' names, PLEASE!!)
"Connections" Page:
Using Testing Criteria to analyze your "Worst Test Ever"
Note: Diagnostic Quiz 2, Mon/Tue, 10/17-10/18; Exam - Research and Testing, Wed/Thur, 10/19-10/20
Personality Tests
Projective Tests
Inventories
Purpose: To probe the UNCONSCIOUS
Patient PROJECTS repressed conflicts and desires
Rorschach Ink Blot
Developed by Hermann Rorschach in 1920s to assess unconscious
Discovered to somewhat reliably predict certain mental disorders
Thematic Apperception Test
Developed at Harvard in the 1930s
Specifically meant to probe repressed conflicts
Resurgence in 1970s with Human Potential Movement
Ex. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Developed in 1939 to assess mental disorder
Still most widely used inventory
Different parts of test measure personality through three SCALES
Identifies personality structure AND psychopathology
Developed using
factor analysis
Analyze personality traits/characteristics
statistically similar traits CATEGORIZED into FACTORS
Topic: Psychological Testing / Intelligence Testing
Page: 17 / 18
We will...
Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity; Identify frequently used assessment strategies for personality testing, and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of these instruments
Writing: Statistical Significance
Finish Personality Inventories
Intelligence Testing
Unit 3: Diagnostic Quiz 2
Preview:
The Preview Section for L18 will be used to keep track of answers from the "Intelligence Test" you will be given; Be ready to write over Statistical Significance as soon as the bell rings
"Connections" Page:
For L17... Using Testing Criteria to analyze your "Worst Test Ever"
Note: Exam - Research and Testing, Wed/Thur, 10/19-10/20 (Chapter 1 Vocabulary Due)
Intelligence Tests
Aptitude Tests
Achievement Tests
Purpose: To predict future performance
Test Development
Standardization
Process of determining meaningful test scores
Ex. SAT / ACT
Purpose: To measure current skills and abilities
Ex. End of Course exams / AP Exams
Psychological Testing
Descriptive Research Methods
... results were NOT just due to CHANCE
Must calculate PROBABILITY
Intelligence
Click on and watch the following video as an introduction...

Currently, there are two broad categories of...
These should have
Predictive Validity
These should have
content validity
involves...
use of procedures and content that is the same each time
Norming
Since most "I.Q." tests are Group Tests, lest look at how they are developed...
These tests can be either...
Individual Tests
Group Tests
Individual scored according to content criteria
Individual scored according to how everyone else does
First group takes test and is scored
Scores are put in a Distribution of Scores (like this one)
If scores look like a "Normal" distribution... the test is NORMED
"I.Q.", then, is determined by where YOUR score falls in the distribution (see below)
Average
Genius
Mental Retardation
The first I.Q. tests were Aptitude Tests, click the link below to watch a short video on the history of I.Q. tests.
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/history-of-intelligence-testing.html
Question:
Does consuming sugar cause hyperactivity in children?
equal chance to be in experimental or control group
minimizes confounds due to personal characteristics
Getting Started
Agenda (8/21/17)
Phone in bag, bag to side or back... nothing new there! :)
Instructional Calendar ('General Resources')
Unit One Cover Page (Handout and in Classroom)
What IS Psychology, Anyway?
Target RM1: Doing Psychological Research
- Texting and Memory... An Introduction to Research
- Notebook Page 2
- Lecture...Discussion...Application (use of L2)
A Few Considerations:
...Based on my SAMPLE
and my METHOD
and my PROCEDURE...
...What CAN I conclude?
...Can be DESCRIPTIVE
...Can be PREDICTIVE
...Can be EXPLANATORY
Opportunity Sample
- uncontrolled variables
- participant characteristics
- lack of standardization
Between Subjects
distinct Experimental and Control groups
Within Subjects
participants are both the Experimental AND Control group (before and after)
OR
Getting Started
Agenda (9/7/17)
1. Please put phone in bag and bag to side or back;
2. Bring binder and pen/pencil to seat;
3. Have out the writing practice "half-sheet" I gave you Friday,
9/1
More Writing Practice
Continue Target RM3 - Experimental Research Methods
- Finish 'Doing' the Experiment
- Finish 'Sugar and Hyperactivity' Application (turned in)
Introduce Target RM4 - Statistics in Psych Research
- Variety of Height as Opening Illustration
- Notebook Page 6
- Lecture... Discussion

** Exam One - History, Approaches, and Research Methods is Thur., 9/14 **
Range...
Standard Deviation...
... average distance of scores from
the mean
... smallest to largest number
... square root of the variance
HOW data tends towards the MIDDLE
How data VARIES from point to point
* Must have Informed Consent for humans
* Humans = participants; Animals = subjects
give consent
* Deception is allowed...
... must be justified for purpose of research
... must be followed by debriefing
- people cannot be coerced into being in research (children need parent/guardian permission)
- must know enough about study to know they won't be harmed
no consent
- Full disclosure of purpose and procedure of study
- Invitation to view published results
* Participants can withdraw at any time...
... part of
Informed Consent
agreement
... even if paid? Keep the money? Yup, keep the money
* All official/sanctioned research approved through an
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Exam Preparation
Exam Procedure
1. ONLY pencil and/or pen;
2. NO tech/phones/Chromebooks;
3. Sit with Zipgrade form
1. Some Basics:
- DO NOT write on Multiple Choice
- Use pen or pencil on MC; pen preferred on FRQ
2. Complete Multiple Choice
- Targets RM1, RM2, RM3, RM4, RM5, TI1, TI2
- 35 Questions; 5 Questions per Target
- 25 Minutes
3. Complete Free Response Question (FRQ)
- One Term/One Target
- 8 Minutes
Dr. Colson has designed an experiment that requires concealing its true intent from the participants. In order for him to maintain ethical integrity:
a. he should forgo informed consent.
b. he will need to debrief the participants after the conclusion of
the experiment.
c. he should reconsider using human participants.
d. he should restructure the experiment, allowing foreknowledge
of its true intent.
e. he will need a special dispensation from the IRB.
The "Stimulus" Questions:
Psychology:
SCIENCE
of BEHAVIOR
and MENTAL PROCESSES.
Ethics
1. Informed Consent (Participant v. Subject)
2. Do no harm (Milgram study as example)
3. Deception? Why, yes, BUT...
4. Incentives? Why, yes, BUT...
5. IRB (Institutional Review)
Getting Started
Agenda (8/23/18)
Phone in bag, bag to side or back... nothing new there! :)
Opening 'Think...Pair...Share': A Strange "Study"
Finish Target RM1
- Lecture...Discussion...Application (use of L2)
Assign and Begin on RM2: Descriptive Research Methods
- Learner Choice... individual/large group/small group
- Notebook page 3
Formative Assessment (Quiz): RM1, RM2
Getting Started
Agenda (8/24/18)
Phone in bag, bag to side or back... nothing new there! :)
Review Descriptive Research Methods
- Brief Illustration of Correlations / Correlation Coefficient
Formative Assessment (Quiz): RM1, RM2 (Google Form)

http://www.tylervigen.com/spurious-correlations
Google Classroom open
Binder open to page 3
Getting Started
Agenda (8/28/18)
Phone in bag, bag to side or back... keep up the good work!
Small Group Discussion - Does Sugar Cause Hyperactivity?
Target RM3 - Experimental Research Methods
- Notebook Page 4
- Lecture... Discussion... Application
- Turn in: Application (L4) - Sugar and Hyperactivity
Introduce Target RM4 - Statistics in Research
- Be ready next class to use basic
descriptive
statistics

Set up a Page 4
Getting Started
Agenda (8/30/18)
Phone in bag, bag to side or back... keep up the good work!
Review and Writing Practice (Question in Classroom)
Activity: 'Descriptive Statistics and Experiments'
- Assignment in Google Classroom
- Practice for Targets RM3, RM4
- Product... Data and Histogram
Finish Target RM4 - Statistics in Research
- Use of Inferential Statistics
Set up for 'Stress and Sleep Survey' Activity
Formative Assessment (Quiz) - Friday, 8/31/18 (RM3, RM4)
Chromebook open to Google Classroom
Notebook open to page 4
Getting Started
Agenda (8/30/18)
Phone in bag, bag to side or back... keep up the good work!
Activity: "Stress and Sleep" Survey (Correlational Analysis)
- Assignment in Google Classroom
- Practice for Targets RM1, RM2, RM4
- Product... Data and Histogram
Finish Target RM4 - Statistics in Research
- Use of Inferential Statistics
Set up for 'Stress and Sleep Survey' Activity
Formative Assessment (Quiz) - Friday, 8/31/18 (RM3, RM4)
Chromebook open to Google Classroom (please DO NOT open Assignment yet)
When a person's test performance can be compared with that of a representative and pretested sample of people, the test is said to be:
a. valid.
b. reliable.
c. normally distributed.
d. standardized.
e. internally consistent.
After Exam
1. Get Textbook
Getting Started
Agenda (9/14/18)
Phone in bag, bag to side or back... keep up the good work!
Already Have an 'N'? Hmmm... what to do, what to do...
Exam One Debriefing and Reflection
- Results of the Exam; Key Questions
- Reflect on Results:
* Mark scores for each target
* Expectation = Performance?
* Goals for improvement
- Reteaching (some) of RM4
- Reassessment - Procedure and Flex Help
Please have binder open to Unit One cover page
Copy of Exam between you and partner
Full transcript