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Research Methods and Statistics

Presentations over study of research methods and psychological testing for AP Psychology.
by

Derek Miller

on 14 September 2017

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Transcript of Research Methods and Statistics

Research Methods

And

Statistics

Statistics in Psych Research
Doing Psychological Research
- Hypothesis
- Operational Definitions
* Operationalize... clearly define research variables for measurement purposes
- Method
...How will we gather the data?
- Conclusion
...Prediction about what you think will happen
...allows study to be REPLICATED
Sampling
Target Population
Sample
(group you want to study)
Random Sample
Representative
Bias and Expectancy
- Researcher Bias
- Social Desirability
(SLANTING the results toward a desired outcome)
(responding according to expected response)
- Placebo Effect
- Hawthorne Effect
A Bit About Ethics
participant response according to perception of what researcher wants
Respond or behave in a way to be perceived favorably
Experimental Research Methods
Working Hypothesis
Operational Definitions
Design
Variables
Experimental Group
Control Group
Setting up the Experiment...
Develop a
Determine
Independent Variable (I.V.)
is manipulated
Dependent Variable (D.V.)
is measured
Establish
of the variables
Decide on
Single-Blind
participants don't know
Double-Blind
experimenter and participants don't know
Watch out for
CONFOUNDING
Variables
Doing the Experiment...
OR
Target Population
Random Selection
Random Assignment
gets the Independent Variable
gets everything EXCEPT the I.V.
Measure and Compare
the Dependent Variable
Inferential Statistics
Purpose:
Determine IF data from experiment is "statistically significant"
How it's done:
If p <.05... likely NOT due to chance
Topic: Psychological Testing
Page: 17
We will...
Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity; Identify frequently used assessment strategies for personality testing, and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of these instruments
Writing: Statistical Significance (Maybe!)
Personality Testing
Preview:
For the Preview on L17 write down the WORST test you have ever taken and exaclty WHY it was a bad test (NO teachers' names, PLEASE!!)
"Connections" Page:
Using Testing Criteria to analyze your "Worst Test Ever"
Note: Diagnostic Quiz 2, Mon/Tue, 10/17-10/18; Exam - Research and Testing, Wed/Thur, 10/19-10/20
Personality Tests
Projective Tests
Inventories
Purpose: To probe the UNCONSCIOUS
Patient PROJECTS repressed conflicts and desires
Rorschach Ink Blot
Developed by Hermann Rorschach in 1920s to assess unconscious
Discovered to somewhat reliably predict certain mental disorders
Thematic Apperception Test
Developed at Harvard in the 1930s
Specifically meant to probe repressed conflicts
Resurgence in 1970s with Human Potential Movement
Ex. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Developed in 1939 to assess mental disorder
Still most widely used inventory
Different parts of test measure personality through three SCALES
Identifies personality structure AND psychopathology
Developed using
factor analysis
Analyze personality traits/characteristics
statistically similar traits CATEGORIZED into FACTORS
Topic: Psychological Testing / Intelligence Testing
Page: 17 / 18
We will...
Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity; Identify frequently used assessment strategies for personality testing, and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of these instruments
Writing: Statistical Significance
Finish Personality Inventories
Intelligence Testing
Unit 3: Diagnostic Quiz 2
Preview:
The Preview Section for L18 will be used to keep track of answers from the "Intelligence Test" you will be given; Be ready to write over Statistical Significance as soon as the bell rings
"Connections" Page:
For L17... Using Testing Criteria to analyze your "Worst Test Ever"
Note: Exam - Research and Testing, Wed/Thur, 10/19-10/20 (Chapter 1 Vocabulary Due)
Intelligence Tests
Aptitude Tests
Achievement Tests
Purpose: To predict future performance
Test Development
Standardization
Process of determining meaningful test scores
Ex. SAT / ACT
Purpose: To measure current skills and abilities
Ex. End of Course exams / AP Exams
Psychological Testing
Topic: Descriptive Research Methods
... results were NOT just due to CHANCE
Must calculate PROBABILITY
Intelligence
Click on and watch the following video as an introduction...

Currently, there are two broad categories of...
These should have
Predictive Validity
These should have
content validity
involves...
use of procedures and content that is the same each time
Norming
Since most "I.Q." tests are Group Tests, lest look at how they are developed...
These tests can be either...
Individual Tests
Group Tests
Individual scored according to content criteria
Individual scored according to how everyone else does
First group takes test and is scored
Scores are put in a Distribution of Scores (like this one)
If scores look like a "Normal" distribution... the test is NORMED
"I.Q.", then, is determined by where YOUR score falls in the distribution (see below)
Average
Genius
Mental Retardation
The first I.Q. tests were Aptitude Tests, click the link below to watch a short video on the history of I.Q. tests.
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/history-of-intelligence-testing.html
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/history-of-intelligence-testing.html#lesson
Question:
Does consuming sugar cause hyperactivity in children?
equal chance to be in experimental or control group
minimizes confounds due to personal characteristics
Getting Started
Agenda (8/29/17)
1. Please bring your phone and binder and pen/pencil with
you to your desk; bag still in back or side please
2. Make sure you have a Post-it Note at your desk as well
Why So Distracted?... An Introduction to Research
Target RM1: Doing Psychological Research
- Notebook Page 3
- Lecture...Discussion...Application (use of L3)
A Few Considerations:
...Based on my SAMPLE
and my METHOD
and my PROCEDURE...
...What CAN I conclude?
...Can be DESCRIPTIVE
...Can be PREDICTIVE
...Can be EXPLANATORY
Opportunity Sample
Getting Started
Agenda (8/31/17)
1. Please put phone in bag and bag to side or back (back to "normal")
2. Bring your binder and a writing utensil to your desk
3. Go ahead and answer the question posted in Classroom
Quick Review of RM1
- MC Question in Google Classroom
- "Think...Pair...Share" - Bad Research
Target RM2 - Descriptive Research Methods
- Handout goes in Notebook as page 4
- In Groups - "Research...Share" Jigsaw
- Application - Why Are BHS Students So Stressed??
Vocabulary Quiz - RM1, RM2 - Friday 9/1
Getting Started
Agenda (8/31/17)
1. Please bring phone to desk along with binder and pen/
pencil; bring colored pencils if you have them
2. Make sure you have a "half-sheet" titled 'FRQ Writing..."
Reflections on Descriptive Research Methods
Formative Assessment/Quiz: RM1, RM2
- Google Form in Question in Google Classroom
Introduction to Successful FRQ Writing
Getting Started
Agenda (9/5/17)
1. Please put phone in bag and bag to side or back;
2. Bring binder and pen/pencil to new seat;
3. Please sit in desk assigned to you as you walked in (desk
number in black ink on corner of desk)
More About Correlations
- Illusory Correlations... a few "examples"
Stress and BHS Students Study Set up
- Use shared Google Doc
- Aim to conduct on Tuesday, 9/12
Target RM3 - Experimental Research Methods
- Notebook Page 5
- Lecture... Discussion
- Application - Sugar and Hyperactivity (put on L5)
- uncontrolled variables
- participant characteristics
- lack of standardization
Between Subjects
distinct Experimental and Control groups
Within Subjects
participants are both the Experimental AND Control group (before and after)
OR
Getting Started
Agenda (9/7/17)
1. Please put phone in bag and bag to side or back;
2. Bring binder and pen/pencil to seat;
3. Have out the writing practice "half-sheet" I gave you Friday,
9/1
More Writing Practice
Continue Target RM3 - Experimental Research Methods
- Finish 'Doing' the Experiment
- Finish 'Sugar and Hyperactivity' Application (turned in)
Introduce Target RM4 - Statistics in Psych Research
- Variety of Height as Opening Illustration
- Notebook Page 6
- Lecture... Discussion

** Exam One - History, Approaches, and Research Methods is Thur., 9/14 **
Range...
Standard Deviation...
... average distance of scores from
the mean
... smallest to largest number
... square root of the variance
HOW data tends towards the MIDDLE
How data VARIES from point to point
Getting Started
Agenda (9/12/17)
1. Please put phone in bag and bag to side or back;
2. Bring binder and pen/pencil to seat;
3. Have your binder open to the cover page for Unit One for
some review
Formative Assessment - RM3 & RM4
Finish Target RM4 - Statistics in Psych Research
- Descriptive Statistics Activity... Sugar and Hyperactivity
- Lecture... Discussion - Inferential Statistics
Target RM5 - Ethics in Psychological Research
- Notebook Page 7
- Learn on Your Own

** Exam One - History, Approaches, and Research Methods is Thur., 9/14 **
* Must have Informed Consent for humans
* Humans = participants; Animals = subjects
give consent
* Deception is allowed...
... must be justified for purpose of research
... must be followed by debriefing
- people cannot be coerced into being in research (children need parent/guardian permission)
- must know enough about study to know they won't be harmed
no consent
- Full disclosure of purpose and procedure of study
- Invitation to view published results
* Participants can withdraw at any time...
... part of
Informed Consent
agreement
... even if paid? Keep the money? Yup, keep the money
* All official/sanctioned research approved through an
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Exam Preparation
Exam Procedure
1. ONLY have pencil and/or pen on your desk;
2. Phone/Electronics MUST NOT be on you (put in your bag
OR in numbered pouch)
1. Some Basics:
- DO NOT write on Multiple Choice
- Use pen or pencil on MC; pen preferred on FRQ
2. Complete Multiple Choice
- Targets HA1, HA2, RM1, RM2, RM3, RM4, RM5
- 35 Questions; 5 Questions per Target
- 25 Minutes
3. Complete Free Response Question (FRQ)
- One Term/One Target
- 8 Minutes

Getting Started
Agenda (9/14/17)
1. Please put phone in bag and bag to side or back;
2. OPTIONAL - Bring binder to seat for last minute notes;
3. Please sit in the desk holding your personalized Zipgrade
answer sheet
Tying up the "Loose Ends"
EXAM ONE - History, Approaches, Research Methods
Reading From "40 Studies" Book (done with all of exam)
Go over FRQ Answer and MC Data


Introspection as practiced by early Structuralists is best illustrated by which of the following behaviors?
a. Recalling one's unconscious desires.
b. Determining the best way for children to learn in school.
c. Conditioning and infant to fear rabbits.
d. Describing one's immediate sensations while looking at a rose.
e. Creating intelligence tests for use in the military.
The "Stimulus" Question:
1. Join your "Research" group and open you shared Doc;
2. Designate TWO to conduct study and gather data; other
TWO are participants for other groups;
3. Follow directions in Classroom post for 'Correlation Research
Activity' (those NOT gathering data can start filling in form)
4. By end of class, submit completed form in the Assignment
Correlation Research Activity
Full transcript