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Research Methods and Statistics

Presentations over study of research methods and psychological testing for AP Psychology.
by

Derek Miller

on 26 September 2016

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Transcript of Research Methods and Statistics

Research, Testing

And

Statistics

Statistics
Topic: Doing Psychological Research
- Hypothesis
- Operational Definitions
(Operationalize... clearly define research variables for measurement purposes)
- Method
Gathering Data
- Conclusion
(Prediction.. "If... then...")
allows study to be REPLICATED
Sampling
Target Population
Sample
(group you want to study)
Random Sample
Example:
Representative
Bias and Expectancy
- Researcher Bias
- Social Desirability
(SLANTING the results toward a desired outcome)
(responding according to expected response)
- Placebo Effect
- Hawthorne Effect
Ethics
participant response according to perception of what researcher wants
Respond or behave in a way to be perceived favorably
* Institutional Review Board (IRB)
* Informed Consent (participants v. subjects)
* Avoid Harm
* Deception & Debriefing
Experimental Research Methods
Working Hypothesis
Operational Definitions
Design
Variables
Experimental Group
Control Group
Setting up the Experiment...
Develop a
Determine
Independent Variable (I.V.)
is manipulated
Dependent Variable (D.V.)
is measured
Establish
of the variables
Decide on
Single-Blind
participants don't know
Double-Blind
experimenter and participants don't know
Best to minimize bias?
Watch out for CONFOUNDING Variables
Doing the Experiment...
OR
Target Population
Random Selection
Random Assignment
gets the Independent Variable
gets no manipulation
Measure and Compare
the Dependent Variable
Inferential Statistics
Purpose:
Determine IF data from experiment is "statistically significant"
How it's done:
If p <.05... likely NOT due to chance
p = probability
Topic: Psychological Testing
Page: 17
We will...
Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity; Identify frequently used assessment strategies for personality testing, and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of these instruments
Writing: Statistical Significance (Maybe!)
Personality Testing
Preview:
For the Preview on L17 write down the WORST test you have ever taken and exaclty WHY it was a bad test (NO teachers' names, PLEASE!!)
"Connections" Page:
Using Testing Criteria to analyze your "Worst Test Ever"
Note: Diagnostic Quiz 2, Mon/Tue, 10/17-10/18; Exam - Research and Testing, Wed/Thur, 10/19-10/20
Personality Tests
Projective Tests
Inventories
Purpose: To probe the UNCONSCIOUS
Patient PROJECTS repressed conflicts and desires
Rorschach Ink Blot
Developed by Hermann Rorschach in 1920s to assess unconscious
Discovered to somewhat reliably predict certain mental disorders
Thematic Apperception Test
Developed at Harvard in the 1930s
Specifically meant to probe repressed conflicts
Resurgence in 1970s with Human Potential Movement
Ex. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Developed in 1939 to assess mental disorder
Still most widely used inventory
Different parts of test measure personality through three SCALES
Identifies personality structure AND psychopathology
Developed using
factor analysis
Analyze personality traits/characteristics
statistically similar traits CATEGORIZED into FACTORS
Topic: Psychological Testing / Intelligence Testing
Page: 17 / 18
We will...
Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity; Identify frequently used assessment strategies for personality testing, and evaluate relative test quality based on reliability and validity of these instruments
Writing: Statistical Significance
Finish Personality Inventories
Intelligence Testing
Unit 3: Diagnostic Quiz 2
Preview:
The Preview Section for L18 will be used to keep track of answers from the "Intelligence Test" you will be given; Be ready to write over Statistical Significance as soon as the bell rings
"Connections" Page:
For L17... Using Testing Criteria to analyze your "Worst Test Ever"
Note: Exam - Research and Testing, Wed/Thur, 10/19-10/20 (Chapter 1 Vocabulary Due)
Intelligence Tests
Aptitude Tests
Achievement Tests
Purpose: To predict future performance
Test Development
Standardization
Process of determining meaningful test scores
Ex. SAT / ACT
Purpose: To measure current skills and abilities
Ex. End of Course exams / AP Exams
Psychological Testing
Topic: Descriptive Research Methods
Topic: Statistics
Page: 16
Descriptive Statistics and Beads Activity
Distribution of Scores
Inferential Statistics
Preview:
For the Preview on L16 write down a QUESTION you would want ask about the following statement:
"According to the W.H.O., 58% of deaths in children under age 5 are because of infectious diseases."
Application Page:
Analyzing Data from Experimental Study of Aggression
... results were NOT just due to CHANCE
Must calculate PROBABILITY
Intelligence
Click on and watch the following video as an introduction...

Currently, there are two broad categories of...
These should have
Predictive Validity
These should have
content validity
involves...
use of procedures and content that is the same each time
Norming
Since most "I.Q." tests are Group Tests, lest look at how they are developed...
These tests can be either...
Individual Tests
Group Tests
Individual scored according to content criteria
Individual scored according to how everyone else does
First group takes test and is scored
Scores are put in a Distribution of Scores (like this one)
If scores look like a "Normal" distribution... the test is NORMED
"I.Q.", then, is determined by where YOUR score falls in the distribution (see below)
Average
Genius
Mental Retardation
The first I.Q. tests were Aptitude Tests, click the link below to watch a short video on the history of I.Q. tests.
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/history-of-intelligence-testing.html
and Testing
10
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/history-of-intelligence-testing.html#lesson
Question:
Does consuming sugar cause hyperactivity in children?
equal chance to be in experimental or control group
minimizes confounds due to personal characteristics
Full transcript