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Transcript of PTSD
Criteria Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) PSY-375- Health Psychology
Done By: Mira J.
Wadima What is PTSD? An anxiety disorder that some people get after seeing or living through a dangerous, traumatic,
or terrifying event. People who have PTSD often feel stressed or afraid, even if they are no longer in that
dangerous situation. PTSD can affect people of all ages, sex or marital status.
Early identification and intervention can make it easier to treat it. Study of 5,877 people-USA
7.8% had PTSD at some point in their lifetime Sex Difference Women were twice as likely as men to have a diagnosis of PTSD at some point in their lifetime. Age Difference No differences across age groups for men.
As women get older, PTSD rates tend to drop. Marital Status More common among both men and women who were previously separated, divorced, or widowed. Symptoms 1. Intrusive memory
2. Avoidance and emotional numbing
3. Increased anxiety or emotional arousal. May not appear until months or years after the traumatic event. Intrusive memory Avoidance &
emotional numbing Increased Anxiety
or Emotional Arousal. Flashbacks
Reliving the event
Nightmares Avoid thinking or talking about the traumatic event
Feeling emotionally numb
Avoiding activities you once enjoyed
Hopelessness about the future
Difficulty maintaining close relationships Overwhelming guilt or shame
Self-destructive behavior (drinking)
Being easily startled or frightened
Hearing/seeing things that aren't there
Irritability or anger Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)(1 Criterion A:
Stressor Criterion B:
Intrusive recollection Criterion C:
Avoidant/numbing Criterion D:
Hyper-arousal Specify if: Criterion E:
Duration 1.The person has experienced, witnessed, or been confronted with an event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others.
2.The person's response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. At-least 1 of the following:
Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event.
Recurrent distressing dreams of the event.
Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring.
Intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues.
Physiologic reactivity upon exposure to internal or external cues. Experiencing at least three of the following:
Avoiding thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with the trauma
Avoiding activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of the trauma
Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma
Diminished interest or participation in significant activities
Feeling of detachment or estrangement from others
Restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings)
Sense of foreshortened future Experiencing at least two of the following:
1.Difficulty falling or staying asleep
2.Irritability or outbursts of anger
5.Exaggerated startle response Symptoms last for more than one month. Criterion F:
Functional Significance The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Acute PTSD: duration of symptoms is less than three months
Chronic PTSD: duration of symptoms is three months or more
With Delayed Onset: at least 6 months have passed between the traumatic event and the onset of the symptoms. Resilient Factors These include:
Finding a support group
Seeking out support from friends and family
Having a coping strategy
Feeling good about one’s own actions in the face of danger
Being able to act and respond effectively despite of feeling fear. Treatment Psychotherapy Medication Experienced mental health provider
People need to find what works best for their symptoms Disorders such as panic disorder, depression, substance abuse, and feeling suicidal can come with PTSD Psychotherapy involves talking to a mental health professional to help treat a mental illness.
It can last from 6- 12 weeks, but can take more time, depending how severe the disorder is. How does talk therapy help people overcome PTSD? Talk therapy helps teach the patients ways to react to frightening events that trigger their PTSD symptoms.
Teach about trauma and its effects.
Use relaxation and anger control skills.
Provide tips for better sleep, diet, and exercise habits.
Help people identify and deal with guilt, shame, and other feelings about the event.
Focus on changing how people react
to their PTSD symptoms. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Exposure therapy
Stress inoculation training
Control PTSD symptoms such as sadness, worry, anger, and feeling numb inside.
Taking these medications may make it easier to go through psychotherapy. Side Effects Headaches
Sleeplessness or drowsiness Antidepressants A healthy outside starts from the inside. Robert Urich Thank You Kessler, R.C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C.B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52,1048-1060.