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Transcript of Propionibacterium Acnes
Spring 2013 Disease Demographic, Route of Transmission, and Life Cycle Demographic Pathogenesis This mechanism is not well understood, but several hypotheses exist:
When PSU become blocked, sebum builds up and becomes a perfect anaerobic environment for P. acnes
P. acnes releases inflammatory products causing many of the symptoms associated with acne.
During puberty, increases in hormones also induce the production of sebum and therefore the proliferation of P. acnes. Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment, and Vaccines Symptoms and Diagnosis Acne Vulgaris Kingdom- Bacteria
Phylum- ActinobacteriaClass- AcintobacteridaeOrder- ActinomycetalesFamily- PropionibacteriaceaeGenus- PopionibacteriumSpecies- Propionibacterium Acnes Morphology Gram negative
Rod shaped Growth Characteristcs Aerotolerant Anaerobe
Resides on human skin, specifically the pilosebaceous unit (PSU) as well as in the mouth, eyes, and ears.
One of the species of human, commensal microbiota Identification Swabbing, Scraping, and Biopsy
16S rRNA PCR and sequencing
FISH Notable Outbreaks and Public Health Interventions Outbreaks NCBI. U.S. National Library of Medicine Perry and Lambert, 2006 Montes, Leopoldo, and Wilborn, 1970
Funke et al, 1997
Brooke and Frazier, 1991
Marples and McGinley 1974 Alexeyev and Johns, 2012 and Holland et al, 2010 Was originally named Bacillus acnes, then Corynebacterium acnes and Corynebacterium parvum
Eventually identified as a propionibacterium because of its anaerobic growth preference Douglas and Gunter, 1996
Bergey et al, 1957
Eady, Anne, and Ingham, 1994 Disease P. acnes is typically associated with with the skin condition acne vulgaris, but the mechanism is not completely understood.
Also associated with other diseases like sarcoidosis, synovitis, pustulosis, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, hyperostosis, and osteitis Webster, 1995
Fitz/Gibbon et al, 2013
Harris et al 2005
Ishige et al, 2005
Perry and Lambert 2006 Incredibly common skin condition
Distributed by age, not geographically
Almost all youth aged 15-17 are affected
In the US, 85% of people aged 12-24 are affected
In the US, 8% of people aged 25-34 are affected
In the US, 3% of people aged 35-44 are affected Bhate and Williams, 2013 and White, 1998 Transmission P. acnes is a normal part of the human microbiota and acne is not a contagious disease Marples and McGinley, 1974 Life Cycle P. acnes resides commensally on humans from birth to death
Resides in pilosebaceous gland-rich areas of the skin as well as the eyes, gut, and other mucous membrances Jappe, 2003 and Leyden, 1975 Gollnick, 2003 http://deathtoacne.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/causes.gif Formation of the pimple on the skin
May be a "white head" or a "black head"
May or may not have painful/inflammatory properties
Swabs and cultures can be used to identify (especially resistance traits since antibiotic resistance is becoming more prevalent Gollnick, 2003 Treatment Retinoids
Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative
Benzoyl peroxide Jappe 2003 Vaccine There have been several attempts to produce an acne vaccine
Since acne is not merely caused by the presence of P. acnes, vaccines cannot "cure" acne. Jappe, 2003, Kao and Huang 2009, & Kim 2008 Outbreaks aren't really relevant to this disease because it affects almost everyone at some point in their life. Public Health Interventions Again, since acne affects almost all individuals throughout their life and is not a life threatening condition, public health interventions are not relevant here.
American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed a set of guidelines released by the American Acne and Rosacea Society outlining standardized treatment for acne in May of 2013. Eichenfield et al, 2013