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Transcript of Safavid
Settled on a form of shiism that appealed to the nomadic turkish tribes
Twelve infailable Imams religious leaders after Muhammad
Began with Prophet's cousin and son in law Ali
The number twelve Imam went into hiding around 874 to escape persecution
The Safavid Dynasty
With strengthened military forces, they had many victories
defeated nomadic Uzbeks
expelled Portuguese from Hormuz
Harassed Ottomans in a series of wars
Ottoman Safavid and Mughal followed example of Ghengis Khan who revered his mother and wife
Mahd-e olya, the wife of one shah, became ruler of Safavids
She tried to limit powers of Qizilbash
They assassinated her
Enemies with Sunni Ottomans
Assigned land grants to the Qizilbash officers to retain their loyalty and give them a stake in the survival of the regime
Shah Abbas the great encouraged long distance trade with other lands.
Increased use of gun powder in military
Sought European Assistance to defeat Ottomans
Shah Abbas brought Northwestern Iran Caucasious and Mesopotamian under Safavinid rule
Ottoman and Safavid empires resisted European influences like the printing press and other European religions, ideas in science, and technology
Land occupied had been active in long distance trade for centuries and participated actively in global trading networks in early modern times
Shah abbas promoted Isfahan as commercial center and extended trading privileges to foreign merchants
Even allowed Christian monastic missions there to help create favorable environment for trade
European merchants sought Safavid silks, carpets, ceramics, and high quality craft items
Traded actively with east india company (EIC), the French East India Company (FEIC), and the Dutch VOC.
The Ottomans, Mughals, and Safavids all relied on agricultural production to finance armies and bureaucracy
Crops were wheat and rice
The capital was moved to Isfahan because it was closer to the center of the empire than the previous capital, making it safer from invasion. Shah Abbas made Isfahan, the capital, into the queen of Persian cities and one of the most precious jewels urban architectural developments in the world. Abbas centered the palace, the markets, and the royal mosque around a vast polo field and public square. Unlike the Ottoman and Mughal palaces, the Safavid palace in Isfahan was relatively small, and contained gardens and pools. The palace in the middle of the square was called Ali Qapu.
Battle of Chaldiran
Sunni Ottomans feared spread of Safavid propaganda among the nomadic Turks in Ottoman territory
When Selim the Grim became Sultan, or leader of Sunni Ottomans, he persecuted the Shiites in Ottoman territory and prepared a full scale invasion in Safavid territory
On the Plain of Chaldiran, Ottomans (1514) used firearms and Janissaries to defeat Safavids
Safavids didn't use firearms because they were unreliable in their eyes
The Qizilbash fearlessly attacked Ottoman lines with the protective charisma of Shah Ismail
Ismail fled and Ottomans occupied capital of Tabriz but , due to an Ottoman mutiny, they did not fully destroy the empire.
Leader was Shah Ismail. 1501-1524 reign.
Capital the tomb and shrine of Safi Al-Din at Ardabil.
Ismail used HQ to advance political power for his descendants.
Former Persian Empire
Safavid propaganda suggested that Ismail was hidden Imam or the incarnation of Allah
Enemies with Sunni Ottomans
After the Battle of Chaldiran, they relied heavily on Persian bureaucracy and administrative talents
Shah Abbas the Great reigned 1588-1629
Moved capital to more central location, Isfahan
Reformed administrative military institutions in the empire
They still derive legitimacy as descendants and representatives of the Imams
Columbian exchange actively encouraged consumption of coffee and tobacco in Ottoman and Safavid empires
The Safavid Empire contained Zoroastrian and Jewish communities as well as many Christian subjects in the Caucasus
Shaah Ishmal force Shiit on his subjects
By: Christian Rutherford, Delaney Moore, Gabe Stoeckig, Gabriella Norton, Maggie Wincek, Jacob Smith, and Olivia Guerra
The Twelver shiites believed that he was still alive and will one day return and spread religion
Followers known as Qizilbash (or redhats)
Followers wear red hat with twelve pleats in memory of twelve shiite Imams
Qizilbash believed traditional Turkish conceptions that associated military leaders with divinity
Ismail's successors abandoned extreme Safavid ideology that said Ismail was Allah.
Create a more conventional Twelver Shiism
Illustration of Battle
The empire fell to the Shiites they used to support
The Shiites persecuted the Sunnis and Sufis that established the empire
The islamic empires purchased weapons from the Europeans, but fell behind in weaponry so that their military became out of date.
Printing was an issue because the empire could not keep pace with the industry of Europe.
The people complained that the Shahs were not fit to lead, causing political tension
Agricultural production declined, causing a decrease in trade
Afghan Sunnis invaded the empire, reached the capital of Isfahan, and the empire lost its power.
He's in a better place now
Shah Abbas the Great
<- visual primary source comparison #1
The Safavid empire was a lot different than the Mughals and Ming as the Mughals often taxed non-believers (poor Hindus) while the Safavids often reduced their taxes and had no need to enforce taxes on their people. The Mughals also had limited trade through the region while the Safavid's trade flourished. The Ming too had limited trade, as they even tried to put an end to all foreign trade. The Safavids were similar to the Ottomans, because in the Ottoman empire warriors were rewarded with land grants as were the qizilbash officers of the Safavid empire. They both also had agriculture that supported their government in addition to extensive trade.
The Safavids were culturally different from the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Ming and Qing relied more heavily on philosophy, while the Safavids were mostly Islamic (Islam did not appear much in either the Ming or Qing). Also, the Ming and Qing people spoke Chinese, while the Safavids spoke Persian.
The Safavids were also similar to the Ottoman empire, because the Safavid Dynasty took heavy influence from the Ottomans. Safavid architecture, art,and literature all derived from already existing Ottoman works.
Politically, the Safavids were similar to the other Islamic empires (Ottoman and Mughal). All three Islamic empires had autocratic governments with extremely efficient militaries. They were different from both the Ming and Qing, however, because they honored the Mandate of Heaven and placed great trust in eunuchs rather than centralizing the government.
The Safavid empire was most like the Ottomans because they had Turkish influence and followed example of Ghengis Khan who revered his mother and wife. They were most different from the Ming because the Safavids had a lot of respect for women but the Ming did not (ex: footbinding).