Transcript of Sun,Earth,Moon Relationship
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli By:Rebecca Vega-Godinez and Shelly Garcia Sun,Earth,Moon Relationship Moon Phases Vocabulary Eclipses Solar Eclipse Umbra: the innermost and darkest part of a shadow,where light source is completely blocked by the occluding body Penumbra:a region in which only a portion of the light source is obsurced by the occluding body As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth in an alignment referred to as syzygy. If the Moon were in a perfectly circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, and in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipses every single month. However, the Moon's orbit is tilted at more than 5 degrees to Earth's orbit around the Sun so its shadow at new moon usually misses Earth Syzygy: a straight-line configuration of three celestial bodies in a gravitational system Eclipses A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its umbra. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned exactly, or very closely, with the Earth in the middle. A lunar eclipse can only occur the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend upon the Moon's location relative to its orbital nodes. Unlike a solar eclipse, which can only be viewed from a certain relatively small area of the world, a lunar eclipse may be viewed from anywhere on the night side of the Earth. A lunar eclipse lasts for a few hours, whereas a total solar eclipse lasts for only a few minutes at any given place, due to the smaller size of the moon's shadow. Also unlike solar eclipses, lunar eclipses are safe to view without any eye protection or special precautions, as they are no brighter than the full moon itself. Orbital nodes:one of the two points where an orbit crosses a plane of reference to which it is inclined. Causes of days, nights, and years Causes of the Seasons As the earth spins on its axis, producing night and day, it also moves about the sun in an elliptical orbit that requires about 365 days to complete. The earth's spin axis is tilted with to its orbital plane. This is what causes the seasons. When the earth's axis points towards the sun, it is summer for that hemisphere. When the earth's axis points away, winter is expected. Since the tilt of the axis is 23 1/2 degrees, the North Pole never points directly at the Sun, but on the summer solstice it points as close as it can, and on the winter solstice as far as it can. Midway between these two times, in spring and autumn, the spin axis of the earth points 90 degrees away from the sun. The moon takes 29.5 days to travel around earth. The four major stages the moon reaches as it travels around earth are called New Moon, First Quarter, Full Moon, and Last Quarter.Full transcript
When the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon are in almost straight line is call New moon. The sun can not reflect off the moon, and thus the Moon is very dark and sometimes difficult to spot.
First Quarter Moon
A week after New Moon, the moon will have travelled a quarter of its path around earth. At First Quarter, the right half side of the moon will light, and the left half will be dark.
Two weeks after New Moon, the moon will have travel half of its path around earth, and the entire face of the moon is lit up by the sun for us to see.
Last Quarter Moon
Three weeks after New Moon, the moon will have travelled three quarter of its path around earth. At Last Quarter, the left half side of the moon will light, and the right half will be dark. The Earth rotates counterclockwise around its axis. The side that faces the sun experiences daylight, and the side facing away from the sun experiences nightfall. The Earth rotates toward the east. The common thought is that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. This is not due east or west; it changes from a northeast-southwest line to a southeast-northwest line throughout the year, and depending on whether you observe the sun's movement from the Northern or Southern Hemisphere. Lunar Eclipse