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Teaching Approaches

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Connor Crabtree

on 20 October 2013

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Transcript of Teaching Approaches

Module 36: Teaching Approaches
by Cori Dantio, Drake Grinonneau
and Connor Crabtree
Expository Teaching
Seat work and Homework
Seat work
Seat work is independent class-room desk work
Must be connected to existing knowledge
Focus on verbal learning
Begins with advance organizer

Seat work is to be used to follow up a lesson and give the students a chance to practice while the teacher is watching.
While most seat work is done with work book pages, they are very rarely effective.
There are many other types of seat work besides the common work book pages including: reading silently or aloud to partner, writing for a "real" audience, and writing letters or journals.
Rosenshine's Six Teaching Functions
Review and check previous day's work
Present new material
Provide guided practice
Give feedback and correctives
Provide independent practice
Review weekly and monthly
based on research of effective instruction

Systematic approach for learning basic skills, facts, and information
Should not be used all the time
Direct Instruction
Curriculum Wars: Reading

. Whole-language approach: "Learning through real-life tasks...respecting the language abilities of students and teachers."

. "Writing should be incorporated into a task that is necessary and relevant for life." (Vygotsky 1978)
(More than habit, becomes complex form of speech)

. Recognition/Morphological Awareness v Context
(Ex: Beautiful)

.Table 36.3: Tips for Teaching Writing
To benefit from homework, students must understand the assignment
To ensure this, do a

few questions in class
A second way to keep students involved is to hold them accountable for completing the work correctly, not just for filling in the page
If students get stuck on homework, they need help at home, someone who can scaffold their work without just "giving the answer"
Questioning and Discussion
Teachers pose questions, students answer (recitation)
Initiation- teach asks the question
Response- student answers
Reaction- praising, correcting, probing, or expanding
An essential element of contemporary learning techniques is keeping students cognitively engaged- and that is where skillful questioning strategies are especially effective
Kind of Questions
Convergent questions- only one right answer
Divergent- many possible answers
Knowledge- recalling information
Comprehension- demonstrating understanding of materials
Application- using information to solve a problem with one right answer
Analysis- critical thinking
Synthesis- divergent, original thinking
Evaluation- judging the merits of ideas, offering opinions, applying standards
Fitting the Questions to the Students
When teachers learn to pose a question, then wait 3-5 seconds before calling on a student to answer, students tend to give longer answers; more students are likely to participate, ask questions, and volunteer appropriate answers; student comments involving analysis, synthesis, inference, and speculation tend to increase; and the students generally appear more confident in their answers
You might try asking students to jot down ideas or even discuss the question with another student and formulate an answer together
Systematic ways to call on students
Pull names from jar or check names off a list as the student speaks
Put each student's name on an index card, then shuffle the cards and go through the deck as you call on people, use note card to jot down notes about quality of student's answers or any extra help they need
Responding to Student Answers
Most common response is simple acceptance: "uh huh, okay"
Answer is quick, firm, correct- accept answer or ask another question
Answer is hesitant but correct- give feedback as to why it is correct
Answer is partially or completely wrong, but made honest attempt- probe for info, give clues, simplify question
Answer wrong and silly- simply correct and move on
Group Discussion
Sometimes similar to recitation strategy
Student directly involved and have chance to participate
Helps students learn to express themselves clearly, to justify opinions, and to tolerate different views
Give students a chance to ask for clarification
Helps students evaluate ideas
Useful when trying to understand difficult concepts
Unpredictable and may easily digress
Have to do a lot of preparation to ensure that participants have enough background knowledge for the discussion
Some members may be anxious
Large groups are often unwieldy
Few students could dominate the discussion while the others day dream

Types of Advance Organizers
Comparative organizers ACTIVATE already existing information
Expository organizers teach new information (e.g. comparing The Diary of Anne Frank to The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)
Evaluating Direct Instruction
Active or passive process?
Scripted cooperation - learning strategy in which two students take turns summarizing material and criticizing the summaries
Direct instruction especially important for younger/unskilled learners
.Principles and Standards for School Mathematics

.Memorization/Drill v Problem Solving (Sherry Ex)

.TIMISS (other countries)

.Students with learning disabilities
Curriculum Wars: Science

. Conceptual Change and Accommodation

.Six Stages
1) initial discomfort
2) inconsistencies removed
3) fitting information
4) doubt
5) Accept and Reject
6) Conceptual Change (accommodation)

.Features of conceptual change (2)

.Questions to ask
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