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The World

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rafaela moutzouris

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of The World

The World

History of the Greek Anthem, who wrote it and why. 

English: Hymn to Liberty or Hymn to Freedom

Lyrics by Dionýsios Solomós, 1823

Music by Nikolaos Mantzaros

Adopted in
1865 by Greece
1966 by Cyprus
It is a poem written in 1823 by a poet named Dionýsios Solomós from Zakynthos Island and set to music by Nikolaos Mantzaros.

There was a total of 158 stanzas, which is used as the national anthem of Greece and Cyprus making it the longest national anthem in the world by length of text. But in 1865, the first three stanzas and later the first two officially became the national anthem of Greece and in 1866 of the Republic of Cyprus.

Who wrote it?

The poem was inspired by the Greek Revolution of 1821 against the Ottoman Empire, and during 1828 a musician from Kerkyra Island, Nicolaos Mantzaros composed the music for the Solomos' Hymn

So why was it written?

After the overthrow of the Othon Dynasty,
the new King, King George, and the Greek establishment decided to neglect the fashion of that time, and use the Royal Anthems as well as a National anthem for Greece.
They looked for a piece of work that was clearly Greek and showed both respect to poetry and music.
The "Hymn to the Freedom" was extremely popular since the Revolutionary times, it was often recited or sung during patriotic meetings and celebrations so it was chosen.


It is very unusual for an Anthem
to have a 6/4 tempo, of the Mantzaros music which points clearly to most traditional Greek dances of Tsamiko.

The anthem has 158 verses

It is the longest national anthem in the world by length of text.

Interesting facts


We all know that the history of Greece is a long and tedious one, filled with wars, victories, discoveries and of course mythology . And so a simple time line dating the events occurring in Greece that made Greece what it is today is what we found to be most effective and interesting rather than tedious.

We would just like to add that in accordance with Greece's literary success and war efforts Greece also is responsible for many a thing in the eyes of most historical scientists such as:

Modern civilization
And most importantly the ever growing spread of languages (which most include an uncountable amount of Greek words).

So to conclude and to say it in the words of the great scientist Albert Einstein:

Development of Western science is based on two great achievements: the invention of the formal logical system (in Euclidean geometry) by the Greek philosophers, and the discovery of the possibility to find out causal relationships by systematic experiment (during the Renaissance by the Greeks). In my opinion, one has not to be astonished that the Chinese sages have not made these steps. The astonishing thing is that these discoveries were made at all. 

History of Greece
Byzantine Empire (4th century – 1453)
Ottoman rule (15th century – 1821)
Modern Greek state (1821– to date)
Ancient Greece
Prehistoric Greece
Economic crisis of 2009–2012
Restoration of democracy
Post-war recovery
Greek Civil War (1944–49)
World War II
World War I and Greco-Turkish War
Modern Greek state (1821– to date)

Ottoman rule (15th century – 1821)

The Fourth Crusade
Artistic revival
Economic prosperity
Byzantine Empire (4th century – 1453)

Roman Greece
Hellenistic Greece
Classical Greece
Archaic Greece
Ancient Greece

Early Iron Age
Mycenaean civilization
Cycladic and Minoan civilization
Bronze Age
Prehistoric Greece

Intelligentsia migration
Millet system
Religious pressure and taxes by the Turks
Early 19th century = Greece's independence
Past 5 years:
History of Greece

2008 Greek riots

Started on 6 December 2008

Murder of Alexios Grigoropoulos, a 15-year-old student, who was killed by two policemen in a
district of central Athens

Global economic crisis


Unemployment increase

The murder of the young student resulted in large protests and demonstrations, which escalated to widespread rioting across other cities

The goals of the rioters:

Better standard of living for the young generation
People against police brutality

The causes of the riots:
2009 Greek Legislative Elections

Parliamentary elections held in Greece on 4 October 2009, although an election was not required until September 2011

A total of 23 parties participated in the elections

Voting was mandatory, however, there were no sanctions or penalties for not voting

October 2009

On 2 September, the Prime Minister announced his request to the President to dissolve Parliament and call an election

Parliament was dissolved on 9 September

September 2009

Greece participated in Group B of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, against Argentina, Nigeria and the Korean Republic:

Greece versed South Korea and lost 2-0

Greece went on to verse Nigeria and won 2-1

Final match was against Argentina, however Greece lost 0-2

Greece at the 2010 World Cup

Greece at the Olympics

Won two bronze medals: one in Judo, by Iliadis, and the other in rowing, by Alexandra Tsiavou and Christina Giazitzidou

2012 Summer Olympics

Won two silver medals, one in rowing and the other in archery

Won three bronze medals, one in rowing, another in athletics and the third in basketball

2010 Summer Youth Olympics

The annual Festival of music and theatre which takes place at the Ancient Theatre of Dion in Pieria, northern Greece

It is a splendid display of Greek and international talents

Famous Greek artists like Maria Farantouri, Mario Frangoulis, George Dalaras and many others have appeared at the Dion Theatre

The Olympus Festival of Greece 2012

But everything is not so bad....
Yayyyy only 3rd
Economic crisis of 2009-2013

Widespread fears that Greek debt could have global repercussions, and possibly plunge the world into recession

Crisis may force Greece to abandon the Euro and bring back former currency, the Drachma

2011 - 2013

Eurozone countries give Greece a loan of €110 billion

Also wrote of 50% of Greek debt owed to private creditors


Greece unable to pay debts due to strong increase in government debt levels

Fears of a debt crisis developed among investors


What exactly is it?
Folk Dance
The zorba is one such dance. It is not a traditional Greek dance although it has been danced to for hundreds of years, but was created and choreographed with the use of specific elements belonging to other types of Greek dance and in each island or state it is danced to differently.

The zorba is danced in a line or circle formation with hands held onto your neighbours' shoulders and the tempo of the music and steps increase as the dance progresses. It begins with slow, smooth steps and increases in pace to include hops and leaps. Although not a traditional Greek dance is probably the most popular one because it is an expressive part of Greek cultureκor kefi, which is the Greek way of having fun.

One of the ways to understand the inner soul of a country and its people is through dance. It is through history but also through dance that the cultural heritage of a country can be understood in many ways.

Folk dance:Zorba

During the zorba dance, the social bonds among men and women and among the group of dancers regardless of gender, age or any other difference, as well as with the overflowing emotions that create and sustain κέφι. Zorba makes you feel part of a greater group, even if you don't know the rest of the people you are dancing with. Whatever your nationality, political theory, age, gender, social status or even skill level on dancing Zorba, it is impossible not to feel "Greek" and join in the experience.

Put differently, this amazing experience of participating in a group of people who dance together under the same spirit encourages and challenges each one to let his/her own "inner Zorba" free.

Interesting facts
Continuously inhabited for over 7,000 years, Athens is one of the oldest cities in Europe. It is also the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, the Olympic Games, political science, Western literature, historiography, major mathematical principles, and Western theories of tragedy and comedy
Greece has more than 2,000 islands, of which approximately 170 are populated.  Greece’s largest island is Crete (3,189 sq. miles) (8,260 sq. km.).
Thousands of English words come from the Greek language, sometimes via the Roman adaptation into Latin and then to English. Common English words from Greek include “academy,” “apology,” “marathon,” “siren,” “alphabet,” and “typhoon.
Greece has zero navigable rivers because of the mountainous terrain. Nearly 80% of Greece is mountainous.

The world’s third leading producer of olives, the Greeks have cultivated olive trees since ancient times. Some olive trees planted in the thirteenth century are still producing olives.

Greece has more international airports than most countries because so many foreign tourists want to visit
About 7% of all the marble produced in the world comes from Greece.
No one in Greece can choose to not vote. Voting is required by law for every citizen who is 18 or older.

Approximately 16.5 million tourists visit Greece each year, more than the country’s entire population. Tourism constitutes nearly 16% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Did you know??
Greece is truly an amazing place filled with rich history...
a strong hold on tradition...
and just an awesome place to go on holiday to...







Folk Song
Written by Marinella who was born Kyriaki Papadopoulou in the city of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. Her parents were Greek refugees from Constantinople. She is the fourth and last child of a large family, which despite its poverty, was rich in love and in artistic talent in their residence in Athens.

Piraeus is a port near Athens. This port’s ancient name was “Piraeus"and is the same today, though during the 17th century it was “Porto Leone” or “Porto Draco”. Athens and its people have always been depending on Piraeus, they are very fond of it and many songs have been written about it.

The children of Piraeus

When she was a small child she would often visit her grandparents in Constantinople traveling through the port of Piraeus, thus giving her the inspiration to write the song after she moved there in her early 20‘s.

Traditional food, dance and clothing

Children of Piraeus
From my window
I send you
one, and two, and three and four kisses
And from the port comes
one, and two, and three and four birds
And I want
one, and two, and three and four children
who when they become men
will be the pride of Pireaus.
I'll always recognize you
By the dreadful sword you hold
As the earth with searching vision
You survey with spirit bold
From the Greeks of old whose dying
Brought to life and spirit free
Now with ancient valour rising
Let us hail you, oh liberty

Snacks and street food is known as the kolatsio. The most popular Greek snack is the gyro, a pita sandwich made of seasoned meat, salad and tzatziki sauce, a blend of yogurt, cucumber and garlic. Spanakopita, a spinach and cheese pie, is another well-known example of kolatsio.

One of the bite-sized appetizers is known collectively as the meze. A mezethakia platter usually offers a variety of tastes, textures and colors and includes items such as cheese, radishes, almonds, figs, anchovies, capers and marinated olives.

They socialize over coffee or a nip of ouzo -- an anise-flavored spirit distilled from grapes, figs or raisins and blended with spices and sugar --

The most important food is the olive. Olive oil makes an appearance in almost every dish, and a handful of marinated Kalamata olives is a popular snack.

Greek food menus rely mainly on fresh food. Fishermen pluck an array of seafood from the Mediterranean. Farmers cultivate lemons, eggplant, artichokes and other fresh fruits and vegetables. They don’t eat much meat but they create mouthwatering lamb, pork and chicken dishes. To satisfy a sweet tooth, Greeks layer nuts and honey into thin sheets of phyllo dough to make sweet snacks.


Traditional women's clothing in Greece also varies from region to region, but these outfits also contain similar elements. Most traditional costumes for women have a simple cotton dress as a base, with a sleeveless wool vest over it. To this, women may add aprons, sashes and, perhaps most importantly, large head scarves.

On the islands, the men's traditional costume starts with a white undergarment and is layered with baggy pants, known as vraka, a white shirt, a sleeveless coat, a sash, a jacket and a tasseled cap.


When a family member dies, women usually wear black for up to a year to show their respect, while men wear black armbands for up to 40 days. Women also make special food such as kollyva, a boiled wheat dish, and paximadia, a biscuit similar to biscotti.

Greek bands use instruments known to Western audiences, such as the clarinet, violin and guitar, but they also incorporate traditional Greek instruments, including the guitarlike bouzouki, the bagpipe known as a gaida, and the toumbi drum. With their unique sound, Greek musicians entice revelers to dance traditional horas, or circle dances, and line dances.

During the ceremony, superstitious wedding attendants may wear traditional eye charms to ward off the evil eye which stems from the belief that envious people who looked upon someone could bring destruction.

At birth, eldest children are named after a grandparent, to ensure the continuation of a family name. A lot of Greeks are named after saints and don’t celebrate birthdays; rather, they celebrate Name Day, the day associated with their namesake saint. It is expected that children get married, and they do so in big celebrations.

Approximately 98 percent of Greece's population belongs to the Greek Orthodox.

The yo-yo is the second oldest known toy in the world (only the doll is older), and was born over 3,000 years ago in the days of ancient Greece.

Ancient Greeks ate dinner while lying on their sides
Greece has one of the lowest divorce rates in the Europe. Greece traditionally also has the highest abortion rates
Greece’s official name is the Hellenic Republic. It is also known as Ellas or Ellada.
After giving a compliment, Greeks make a puff of breath through pursed lips, as if spitting. This is meant to protect the person receiving the compliment from the “evil eye.”
Greeks do not wave with an open hand. In fact, it is considered an insult to show the palm of the hand with the fingers extended. Greeks wave with the palm closed.
Slaves made up between 40% and 80% of ancient Greece’s population. Slaves were captives from wars, abandoned children, or children of slaves.
Feta, which is made from goat’s milk, is the Greece’s national cheese.
Football, or what Americans call soccer, is the national sport of Greece
Greece has more archaeological museums than any other country in the world.
The life expectancy for ancient Greek women was 36, and the average for males was 45. Of the children born, only half survived infancy. Currently the life expectancy for Greek females is 82 years and for men, 77 years. Greece is ranked #26 in the world for life expectancy rates. The United States is ranked #49.
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