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Philippine Culture during the Spanish Era

Anthro 225

Joan Macrise Corrado

on 23 June 2017

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Transcript of Philippine Culture during the Spanish Era

Philippine Roots
Economy and Livelihood
Spain's Contribution
to Filipino Nationalism
Aspects in Philippine Culture
Food and Clothing
Economy and Livelihood
The Roman Catholic religion
-originated in Asia, being founded by Jesus Christ in Palestine
-spread to Western Europe after Christ's crucifixion
-16th and 17th century: propagated across the Atlantic to the New World and across the Pacific to the Philippines
-most outstanding achievement of Spanish missionaries who came with the Spanish conquistadores
Philippine Culture
in the Spanish Period

Spain introduced new food plants
Filipinos learned to eat bread, ham, longanizas,
mutton, and European canned gods
Drink coffee, cacao, and foreign wines
Use drinking glasses, table knives, and napkins while eating
The Philippine economy remained underdeveloped
Relegated to the role of missionary & military way station (as Spain’s stepping stone to the dreams of creating an Oriental empire)
Galleon Trade – trade between China & Mexico with Manila as the transhipment port
Manila became a prosperous city due to the trade
Because of Spain's three-century colonization, the country came to be known as the Philippines, and the people, the Filipinos

Spain caused diverse native tribes to unite one people
(Tagalog, Visayans, Bicolanos, Ilocanos, etc)
Family in the Spanish Era
Simple and wholesome
Father is the master of the household
Mother was first tutor
Broken homes were rare
Children kiss their parents' hands after evening prayers, upon leaving and returning home
For Men:
For Women:
Western Coat
Slippers and Shoes
Slippers Stockings
Role of the Chinese
As intermediaries between the Western and native economies
Commercial activities accelerated the dissolution of primitive economy of the natives
Chinese mestizos began to displace local principales, as landowners and creditors they were influential in their regions and accepted as leaders
Concentrated on the expansion of their landed estates
Land property
Agricultural land took on new importance
Production of export crops: sugar, tobacco, indigo and hemp
Started the legacy of debt in the lives of the native Filipinos
Filipino Women
Position of Filipino women were elevated
Respected by men
Chaperoned if unmarried
NO freedom to study in university, engage in professions and to mix freely with men
Entered exclusive schools
Those who had no intention of marrying entered the nunnery
Maria Clara
Of Names, Alphabets, and Languages
First names of Filipinos were from saints
Gov. Gen. Narciso Claveria issued an order to give Spanish surnames to the Filipino families, but many families remained loyal to their surnames
Filipinos easily adopted the Latin alphabet and Spanish language
Enriched our national language FILIPINO with 5,000 Spanish loan words
Filipinos became the sole Spanish-speaking nation in Asia
Spanish friars studied and used our native language in spreading Christianity instead of Spanish
Spanish missionaries were the first to write grammar and dictionaries about the Filipino languages

Arte y reglas de la lengua tagala by Fr. Francisco Blancas de San Jose
1593: Dominicans in Manila established the first Filipino press
It still exists in UST and is one of the oldest printing establishments in the world
religious in character
Florante at Laura (Francisco Baltazar)
Urbana at Feliza (Fr. Modesto de Castro)
Biag ni Lam-ang (Pedro Bukaneg)
Gonzalo de Cordova (Fr. Anselmo Fajardo)
Duplo- poetical debate (bellocos, bellacas)
Karagatan- poetical debate for amateurs
Cenaculo- life and suffering of Christ
Moro-moro- Christians vs. Muslims
Zarzuela- musical comedy
Enriched by Spanish and Mexican influences
replicas of foreign instruments with bamboos
Horce Races
Manila Lottery
Full transcript