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Electronegativity and Polarity
Transcript of Electronegativity and Polarity
What is it?
In a polar covalent bond, the electrons shared by the atoms spend a greater amount of time. The result is a charge
separation in the molecule.
The Greek letter delta is used to represent a partial charge.
Difference between Nonpolar and Polar bonds
Nonpolar covalent bonds are a type of chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other. Polar covalent bonding is a type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms.
The difference in properties are a result of differences in attractive forces.
Weak attractive forces are known as intermolecular forces .
Non polar forces are weak forces called dispersion forces.
Also known as Van der Waal Forces
Covalent compounds are related to weak intermolecular forces.
Weak intermolecular forces explain why many molecular substances exist as gases
Also they vaporize readily at room temperature.
Polar Covalent Bonds
Patricia, Fantasia, Quintea & Casey
Electronegativity and Polarity
Electronegativity is a measure of how strongly atoms attract bonding electrons by themselves.
Polarity is the direction of the magnetic or electric field.
The type of bond formed during a reaction is related to each atom's attraction for electrons.
is a measure of the tendency of an atom to accept an electron.
Electron affinity increases with increasing atomic numbers within a period, and decreases with increasing atomic numbers within a group.
Electronegativity and Bond Character
The scale of electronegativity allows chemists to evaluate the electron affinity of specific atoms in a compound.
The shown periodic table on page 265 lists electronegativity values. Fluorine has the greatest electronegativity values while Francium has the least.
Noble gases do not generally form compounds. Because of this, there are no individual electronegativity values for helium, neon, and argon. Although, larger noble gases like xenon sometimes bond with highly electronegative atoms like fluorine.
the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond.
A chemical bond between atoms of different elements is never completely ionic or covalent. The type of chemical bond can be defined by using the electronegativity difference of the elements that bond. When electrons in bonds between identical atoms have an electronegativity difference of zero, meaning that the electrons are equally shared between the two atoms, they are considered nonpolar or a pure covalent bond.
Bond Character (continued)
Not all elements share the same electronegativty. Because of this, the electron pairs in a covalent bond between different atoms are not shared equally. Unequal sharing results in a polar covalent bond. When there is a large difference in the electronegativity between bonded atoms, it results in bonding that is primarily
. As the difference in electronegativity increases, the bond becomes more ionic. Generally, ionic bonds form when the electronegativity difference is greater than 1.70.
Words You Need To Know
Vocabulary Term (1)
Polar Covalent Bond- a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally.
Electron affinity ~ a measure of the tendency of an atom to accept an electron.
Electronegativity ~ the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond.
#1 ) NAME THE ELEMENTS
Even though noble gases do not generally form compounds, a large noble gas called _____ sometimes bonds with highly electronegative atoms such as the element ______.
#2) MULTIPLE CHOICE
When electrons in bonds between identical atoms have an electronegativity difference of zero, they are considered...
A) Ionic B) Non polar/Pure C) Polar
#3) TRUE OR FALSE?
A polar covalent bond is when atoms are shared equally?
, a large noble gas, bonds with highly electronegative atoms like
When electrons in bonds between identical atoms have an electronegativity difference of zero, they are
Considering that polar means "different", we can conclude that when atoms are NOT shared equally, they are considered a polar covalent bond.