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Italy Before WWI
Transcript of Italy Before WWI
Victor Emmanuel II: Born 1820-1878 King of Italy(1852) and secured Venetia and Rome in 1861.
Antonia Gransci: Born 1891-1921 Organized strikes by trade unions in the early 20th century. Founded the Italian communist party.
Benito Mussolini: Born 1883-1945 Created the fascist party in 1919 More important in WWII. He was a socialist in his youth and his father was kicked out from the socialist party because he supported WWI.
Giuseppe Garibaldi: Born 1807-1882 Italian general and politician Italy's position on the war Events Directly Leading to Involvement
in WWI Industrialism: With Italy economically the forefront in an ancient and medieval times, Italy was so far behind Britain, Germany, and France's era of Industrialization. Before the unification of Italy in 1861, Italy was separated into minor kingdoms that were ruled by the Habsburg Empire. After the Unification of Italy, and a few months after the Kingdom of Italy was formed, Count Cavour died. Without his leadership, Italy couldn't industrialize, thus delaying Italy's rise to industrialization until 1890.
Nationalism: The Kingdom of Italy was formed in 1861, but it didn't include Rome and Venetia. Venetia was eventually annexed in 1866, and Rome voted to join the union in 1870, thus uniting all of Italy as a whole.
Imperialism: Shortly, after the unification of Italy, Italy began colonizing Somaliland(Somalia), but lacked the true grasp of Imperialism or the ability to exercise it well. Instead of going head-on and colonizing Somaliland from the other European countries that had colonial power there, Italy decided to take small steps into colonizing the country. Italy colonized what ever little lands they could within Somaliland whenever it had the chance. To start with, Mussolini was against the war:
"Down with the war. Down with arms and up with humanity."
However, by October 1914, he had changed his mind and referred to the war as "a great drama".
"Do you want to be spectators in this great drama? Or do you want to be its fighters?"
Many socialists had supported the government ‘s stand in keeping Italy out of the war in 1914. The nationalists, however, were horrified.
Mussolini was kicked out of the Socialist Party in Italy but many young socialists agreed with Mussolini and left the party and followed him Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated Bibliography http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/places-timelines/27-italy-history-timeline.htm
http://libcom.org/library/decadence-aufheben-2 Agreed to declare war against the central powers in exchange for many territories including Friuli, Trentino and Dalmatia. Treaty of London: 1915, was a secret pact between Italy and the Triple Entente, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the Kingdom of Italy, Great Britain, France, and Russia. June 28th, 1914 Italy allied itself with Germany and Austria-Hungary forming the Triple Alliance.
Angry at the French seizure of Tunisia in 1881 On April 26th 1915, she came into the war on the side of the Triple Entente – Britain, France and Russia. What Italy did was wait and see how the war progressed Primary Documents Treaty of London (1915) Other "isms" May 23, 1915 Italy enters the war on the side of the allies Alliances Socialism August 3, 1914 Italy declares neutrality The Italian Socialist Party was founded in 1892 by delegates of the Italian Labour Party and the Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party. Italian government did not like them in their early years.
Finally established as a mainstream Italian political party in the 1910s Treaty of London Captialism Italy was in the hunt for gold, slaves, oil, opium, markets, cheap labour and strategic advantages.
Original capitalism, (1830–1870)
A contribution to the industrialism and technical developments of Italy
Static capitalism (1870–1914)
Due to the concepts of middle class economic individualism
Destroy its own prior achievements more than it would advance Divided into two major branches
the Reformists (led by Filippo Turati) and the Maximalists (led by Costantino Lazzari) May 23, 1915, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary Not so important but fun dates:
1862- the first mass killing by the Mafia is carried out in Sicily
1890- On average 280 thousand Italians leave Italy every year
1899- Fiat builds the first Italian car
1900- The population of Italy is 32.4 million
1901- Guglielmo Marconi conducts the first transatlantic radio transmission Important dates:
1859- France and Austria went to war and took part of Italy.
1860- Garibaldi led a force of volunteers, the "Red Shirts" in a conquest to Sicily and Naples, which after he gave to Victor Emanuel II who controlled most of Italy at the time.
1860-Northern Italy was joined to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
1861-The Kingdom of Italy was completly formed under the leadership of Victor Emmanuel II.
1866-Italy allies with Prussia in the "Seven Weeks' War". Defeats Austria and annexes Venezia.
1870- Italy conquers Rome from the Pope and declares Rome its capital, while the Pope retreats to the Vatican .
1882- Italy enters the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria
1904- Socialists organize the first nation-wide strike. Officially stating that the Triple Alliance only had a defensive role and that Italy would not commit to war under its present conditions.
In reality, both Prime Minister Antonio Salandra and Minister of Foreign Affairs Sidney Sonnino secretly began organizing diplomatic activities to decide which side of the war would be most profitable for Italy. Causing Austria-Hungary and Germany to declare war on Serbia, which caused Russia to declare war Austria-Hungary and Germany, and then Germany declared war on France, invading neutral Belgium, so the United Kingdom declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany. Italy decides that joining Austria and Germany would not be profitable enough for them.