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Q31M08 Introduction to Linguistics

Q31M08 All presentations for Autumn 2013
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Stephen Pihlaja

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Transcript of Q31M08 Introduction to Linguistics

Complex
Contextual
Structured
Evolving
Language is...
What is linguistics?
Read the course brochure
Come to class
Interact
Do your work on time
Think broadly
Pass with flying colours
Module overview
Language is...
Although those who study language may disagree over a precise definition because they dispute some concepts, such as whether or not language must have a written and/or oral component, they agree that language is
a rule-based system of signs.
http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/ikos/EXFAC03-AAS/h05/larestoff/linguistics/Chapter%201.(H05).pdf
What is Linguistics?
Why study language?
How is language analysed?
Going Forward
‘The meaning of a word is its use in the language’
– Ludwig Wittgenstein
Task
Task
Complex
Contextual
Structured
Evolving
What are some things you use language for?
List different situations you use language.
Why do you use language in each of these situations?
How does it differ?
Example
You use language at the dentist to
Inform
Express emotion
Effect action
Week 1
Week 2
Phonetics, phonology, morphology, & lexicology
What is linguistics?
Why study language?
How can language be studied?
Review
is the study of word structure and the relationship between meaning and form
Lexicology
Going Forward
Task
Task
What is the smallest unit of language?
Say the words top, taught, and tap.
What is happening in your mouth and throat that makes these words sound different?
How do you describe the differences between those words, based on their sounds?
Lexical Semantics
Phraseology
Etymology
Lexicography
What is a word?
How does a 'word' differ from a sound?
Phonetics is the study of sound in human speech.

Phonology is the study of the systematic use of sound in language.
Week 3
Semantics
Texts
Coherence
Grammatical
Lexical
Review
Going Forward
Task
Week 4
Text & Discourse
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Lexicology
Review
Text
Week 5
Pragmatics
Grice's Maxims
Review
Psycholinguistics
Sociolinguistics
Week 6
Grammar
Review
Task
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
Week 11
Week 12
READING WEEK
Introduction to Linguistics
Dr Stephen Pihlaja
Q31M08
University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Autumn 2013
Presentations
What is language?
Why do we need language?
How does the use of language differentiate us from other animals?
Language develops over time through use.
Language has structures that must be followed if a speaker wants to be understood.
The meaning of language depends on the context in which it is being used.
Language emerges when many different people use it. The systematic features of language aren't created by one person or authority, but from many people using the language over time.
Language shows us:
how we think
how societies work
what we believe
why people do what they do.
Key Example
Harvey Sacks and the suicide prevention line
https://sites.google.com/a/sheffield.ac.uk/all-about-linguistics/branches/conversation-analysis/example-research
Harvey Sacks and Suicide
Key Text
Mullany, L. and Stockwell, P. (2010)
Introducing English Language: A resource book for students. London: Routledge.
Levels of analysis
Conversation
Review
Conversation Analysis (CA)
Doing CA
Theories & Paradigms
Generativism
Structuralism
Functionalism
Cognitivism
Standardisation&
Language Varieties
Review
Task
Pragmatics
Semantics
Sense
Pragmatics
Task
Think of a word that has different meanings in different situations. How do you know what the meaning of the word is?
Are there times when the meaning of a word might be ambiguous?
Think of an example and think of why the meaning is ambiguous in the situation.
Sense Relations
Grice's Maxims
What is grammar?
What are your general feelings toward grammar in your own language and in your second (third, fourth, fifth) language?
What does it mean to be 'good at' grammar?
Descriptivism
Prescriptivism
Seven ways of looking at grammar
Read Grice's 'Logic and Conversation' (Moodle)
The maxim of quantity, where one tries to be as informative as one possibly can, and gives as much information as is needed, and no more.
The maxim of quality, where one tries to be truthful, and does not give information that is false or that is not supported by evidence.
The maxim of relation, where one tries to be relevant, and says things that are pertinent to the discussion.
The maxim of manner, when one tries to be as clear, as brief, and as orderly as one can in what one says, and where one avoids obscurity and ambiguity.
1.
2.
3.
4.
And/but
These maxims can be flouted for various purposes.
Task
List a time when someone might flout each of the different maxims.

What is the reason for flouting the maxims, in each case?
grammar as rules
grammar as structures
grammar as mathematics
grammar as algorithms
grammar as texture
grammar as collocation
grammar as an emergent phenomenon
http://www.thornburyscott.com/assets/7%20ways%20of%20looking%20at%20grammar%20china%20edit
Sacks & the suicide line
a discipline that aims to explain the many intricacies and tacit knowledge (meaning everyone understands what occurs during conversation, but couldn’t implicitly state why) of social interaction. 
sites.google.com/a/sheffield.ac.uk/all-about-linguistics/branches/conversation-analysis/what-is-conversation-analysis
01 B: Hello::,
02 A: HI:::.
03 B: Oh: hi:: 'ow are you Agne::s,
04 A: Fi:ne. Yer line's been busy
05 B: Yeuh my fu (hh) .hh my father's wife called me
Example
Handout on Psychic Readings
http://blogs.helsinki.fi/perakyla/files/2008/10/conversationanalysis_08l1.pdf
Notes on notation
CA notation used in this segment includes:
. Period indicating falling intonation at the end of an utterance
, Comma indicating flat intonation at the end of an utterance
: Colon indicating prolongation of sound
a Underlining indicating emphasis
hh Row of h's indicating aspiration
.hh Row of h's preceded by a dot indicating inhalation
A Capital letters indicating louder volume than surrounding talk
As Schegloff (1986) has shown, the openings of telephone conversations, as the one above, usually consist of four short sequences:
1. Summons (telephone ringing, not shown in the transcript) and answer (line 1);
2. identification/recognition (accomplished in lines 1–3);
3. greetings (lines 2–3);
4. and "howareyou" sequence (lines 3–4).
Regularities
Key point
Everyday interaction is full of regularities that we have tacit knowledge of, but never explicitly state. These regularities reveal how social structures are created and maintained.
B's answer to the "howareyou" is, in line 4, followed by her assertion that A's line has been busy. The assertion is about an event that the co-participant (A) has a privileged access to (as it was her line).
Analysis
Examples taken from
“Fishing devices" cast their recipient in a position where it becomes relevant for him or her to speak about the referred-to event.
However, fishing takes place without the subject directly asking for information: the recipient, if he or she will speak about the event, will volunteer the information.
That is what B does in line 5, where she tells who she was talking with.
Action in Conversation
Review
Lev Vygotsky
"It would be wrong, however, to regard thought and speech as two unrelated processes either parallel or crossing at certain points and mechanically influencing each other. The absence of a primary bond does not mean that a connection between them can be formed only in a mechanical way. The futility of most of the earlier investigations was largely due to the assumption that thought and word were isolated, independent elements, and verbal thought the fruit of their external union."
Chapter 7 of 'Language and Thought'
Language
Thought
http://grammar.about.com/od/basicsentencegrammar/f/descpresgrammar.htm
the systematic study and description of a language. Descriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as it is actually used by speakers and writers.
http://grammar.about.com/od/basicsentencegrammar/f/descpresgrammar.htm
a set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language, usually intended as an aid to the learning of that language. Prescriptive grammar refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used..
What does the word 'frog' mean?
What about 'love'? What does it mean?
What does 'James' mean?
How do you know what it means?
Words do not have meanings, people have meanings for words.
-Nelson Francis (1967)
All notes and lectures Creative Commons license to Stephen Pihlaja. Many thanks to Melissa Yoong (CELE-UNMC) for many of the slides!
Contact stephen.pihlaja@nottingham.edu

Semantics
the study of meaning
Meaning making
Cow
Referent
Reference
Sign
Signified/
Sense
Signification
Meaning making
Love
Referent
Reference
Sign
Signified/
Sense
Signification
?
Sense
Conceptual
Associative
Connotation
Collocation
Reflection
Conceptual Sense (Denotative Meaning)
= Stable semantic features of a word
Cow[+animal + adult +female]
Woman [-animal +adult +female]
Man [-animal +adult +male]
Boy [-animal -adult +male]
values and attitudes invoked by the word
Examples
They are in a relationship.
They are having an affair.
Chubby
Plump
Well-fed
Healthy
Fat
A businessman is aggressive; a businesswoman is pushy.
He is careful about details; she is picky.
He loses his temper because he is so involved in his job; she is bitchy.
He is depressed (or hung over), so everyone tiptoes past his office; she is moody, so it must be her time of the month.
He follows through; she does not know when to quit.
He is firm; she is stubborn.
He makes wise judgments; she reveals her prejudices.
He is a man of the world; she has been around.
He is not afraid to say what he thinks; she is opinionated.
He exercises authority; she is tyrannical.
He is discreet; she is secretive.
He is a stern taskmaster; she is difficult to work for.
Strong man
Strong tea
Strong language
Divorcee
Single Mother
Working Mother
Career Woman
Gay
Drugs
Mouse
Examples
Examples
understanding a word’s meaning based on which words it can go with
Powerful man
(Powerful tea)
Powerful language
Strong
Powerful
meaning affected by another conceptual sense of the same word
Figurative
Metaphor
Metonymy
Homophones
Synonyms
Antonyms
Homonyms
Hyponyms
Happy
(Superordinate Term)
Delighted Overjoyed Blissful
(Hyponyms)
Tall & short
Gradable (happy vs sad)
Complementary (married vs single)
Relational (husband vs wife)
Reverses (lock vs unlock)
Whine and Wine
Post (mail)
Post (pole)
Big and large
Juilet is the sun.
The White House claimed to know nothing of the scandal.
Semantic change
Task
Looking at the meaning of 'gay' in the OED.
is the study of lexis and word formation
Lexis is total word-stock of a language
Two Minute Task
Can you think of a word that gives you bad feelings even though the word is not necessarily bad?
Why do you have bad connotations of the word?
The smallest segment of sound which can distinguish two words
Phonemes
The IAP Alphabet
Sound library
http://web.uvic.ca/ling/resources/ipa/charts/IPAlab/IPAlab.htm
Morphology
Morphemes
The smallest meaningful unit in a language
Task
He decided to rearrange the plants in the greenhouse.
How many words? How many morphemes?
He
decid
ed
to
re
arrange
the
plant
s
in the green
house
.
Root
Affix
Prefix
Suffix
Inflectional Morphology
Derivational Morphology
Change in word form
Change in meaning
Untie
Tallest
Happiness
Writes
Bonito-bonita
Planes
The meanings of words
the history of a word
The practices and principles of dictionary making
The study of fixed expressions
See OED
Words, words, words
https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=essay---what-is-a-word.pdf&site=1
Grammatical word forms is one of the several forms that may be assumed by a lexical item for grammatical purposes.
Different Levels of Language
Orthographic words is a written sequence which has a white space at each end but no white space in the middle.
Phonological words are a piece of speech which behaves as a unit of pronunciation according to criteria which vary from language to language.
Lexical items is an abstract unit of the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language, with a more or less readily identifiable meaning or function
Milk = 1 morpheme
Man = 1 morpheme
Milkman = 2 morphemes
Morpheme Maths
Cohesion: the ways (phonological, grammatical, lexical, semantic) of linking sentences into larger units (e.g. paragraphs, chapters).

Coherence: a text is coherent if it makes sense and has unity.
Coherence and Cohesion
A continuous stretch of spoken or written language.
Halliday & Hasan (1976):
A text has texture and this is what distinguishes it from something that is not text … The texture is provided by the cohesive relation.
The feeling that something is a Text and not a random collection of sentences
Textuality

I bought a Ford. A car in which President Wilson rode down the Champs Elysees was black. Black English has been widely discussed. The discussions between the presidents ended last week. A week has seven days. Every day I feed my cat. Cats have four legs. The cat is on the mat. Mat has three letters.
(from Brown and Yule, 1983:197)
Cohesive or coherent?
Does this text make sense?
Kinds of Cohesion
Grammatical
Lexical
Outside of Text
Jane Eyre, the narrator Jane talks about Mr Rochester: ‘Reader, I married him’.
Reference
I; you; he; she; it; one; we; you (plural)
Inside of text
Look at the sun. It’s going down quickly.
Exophoric
Endophoric
Personal pronoun
This mechanism relates one element of the text to another one.
Substitution
Replacing one item with another
Nominal: one, ones, same
Verbal: do
Clausal: so, not
Examples
My axe is too blunt. I should get a sharper one.

Has Barbara left? I think so.
Ellipses
The omission of an item or items.
Discourse
This is a fine hall you have here. I’m proud to be lecturing in it
This is a fine hall you have here. I’ve never lectured in a finer one
This is a fine hall you have here. I’ve never lectured in a finer
BUT NOT
Discourse Markers
Words that do not affect the meaning of a sentence but serve an organising function
right; anyway; okay; so; well
Conjunctions
Add/give an alternative: and, or, furthermore, in addition, in other words
Contradict: but, yet, though, however
One event causes another: so, then, it follows that, as a result
One event follows another: one day, then, finally, the next day
Continuing/following the text: well, now, of course, anyway, surely
And others!
Direct Repetition
If it is poor mastery of English that is impairing the students’ ability to understand the contents being delivered, then the correct strategy to remedy the problem is to ameliorate their proficiency in English.
The best way to effect such a solution is to improve the standards in which English is taught as a subject.
This demands that it be tackled by the specialised English teachers who teach them.
It is incorrect to presume that the issue can be remedied by heaping more materials in English.
(adapted from The Star, 11 December 2011
What words are repeated here?
Synonyms
If it is poor mastery of English that is impairing the students’ ability to understand the contents being delivered, then the correct strategy to remedy the problem is to ameliorate their proficiency in English.
The best way to effect such a solution is to improve the standards in which English is taught as a subject.
This demands that it be tackled by the specialised English teachers who teach them.
It is incorrect to presume that the issue can be remedied by heaping more materials in English.
(adapted from The Star, 11 December 2011
What words have similar meanings?
Antonyms
If it is poor mastery of English that is impairing the students’ ability to understand the contents being delivered, then the correct strategy to remedy the problem is to ameliorate their proficiency in English.
The best way to effect such a solution is to improve the standards in which English is taught as a subject.
This demands that it be tackled by the specialised English teachers who teach them.
It is incorrect to presume that the issue can be remedied by heaping more materials in English.
(adapted from The Star, 11 December 2011
What words have opposing meanings?
Semantic Field
If it is poor mastery of English that is impairing the students’ ability to understand the contents being delivered, then the correct strategy to remedy the problem is to ameliorate their proficiency in English.
The best way to effect such a solution is to improve the standards in which English is taught as a subject.
This demands that it be tackled by the specialised English teachers who teach them.
It is incorrect to presume that the issue can be remedied by heaping more materials in English.
(adapted from The Star, 11 December 2011
What words belong to the same topic?
And others!
e) Superordination
f) Ordered Series: months, seasons, days
g) Whole-Part: university departments
h) Specific-General Reference
Language at the level above the sentence.
Involves interlocutors in a context, not abstract language artifacts
Task
Choose one kind of grammatical cohesion and one kind of lexical cohesion.
Identify all instances in the text.
Analysis of text for cohesion.
from http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101207/ap_on_hi_te/wikileaks
LONDON – A British judge sent Julian Assange to jail on Tuesday, denying bail to the WikiLeaks founder after Assange vowed to fight efforts to be extradited to Sweden in a sex-crimes investigation.

Despite Assange's legal troubles, a WikiLeaks spokesman insisted the flow of secret U.S. diplomatic cables would not be affected. He also downplayed efforts to constrict the group's finances after both Visa and MasterCard cut off key funding methods Tuesday.

"This will not change our operation," spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson told The Associated Press. As if to underline the point, WikiLeaks released a dozen new diplomatic cables, its first publication in more than 24 hours, including the details of a NATO defense plan for Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania that prompted an indignant response from the Russian envoy to the alliance.

Assange turned himself in to Scotland Yard on Tuesday morning, and was sent to the City of Westminster Magistrates' Court in the early afternoon. He showed no reaction as Judge Howard Riddle denied him bail and sent him to jail until his next extradition hearing on Dec. 14.

"That sounds like good news to me," he said Tuesday.

Riddle asked the 39-year-old Australian whether he understood that he could agree to be extradited to Sweden. Assange, dressed in a navy blue suit, cleared his throat and said: "I understand that and I do not consent."

The judge said he had grounds to believe that the former computer hacker — a self-described homeless refugee — might not show up to his next hearing if he were granted bail.
Arguments during the hour-long hearing detailed the sex accusations against Assange, all of which he has denied.

Attorney Gemma Lindfield, acting on behalf of the Swedish authorities, outlined one allegation of rape, two allegations of molestation and one of unlawful coercion stemming from Assange's separate sexual encounters in August with two women in Sweden.
Grammar task
Do you think there should be a 'right' and 'wrong' way to use a language? Why or why not?
Who makes language rules and who enforces them?
Read Mullany & Stockwell, pgs 1-9, 57
Read Mullany and Stockwell, pgs 19-22
Read Mullany and Stockwell, pgs 67-72
Watch this video
Review
The study of the construction of meaning in interactional contexts
Key Concepts
Inferences
Interpretation
Intention
Example
Someone forgot again.

Make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.
(Grice, 1989)
Co-operative Principle
Key point
Utterances need to be related to context to be understood.
Presuppositions
I told you so
Utterance + Shared Knowledge draw Inference of Implied Meaning
Shared Knowledge =Presuppositions
Entailments
What logically follows from what is asserted in the utterance
Your coffee is getting cold

>> The cup/etc. belongs to the hearer
>> The cup/etc. contains coffee
>> The coffee was not cold to begin with

||- The speaker does not think the coffee will taste good once it is cold
Example
What do these mean?
Example
Oh, look! There’s a petrol station across the road.
Example
My phone’s not working.
How listeners make inferences about what is said to arrive at an interpretation of the speaker’s intended meaning
Pragmatics studies
Sociolinguistics
& Psycholinguistics
Task
In what ways does
where you live and
who you speak with
affect how you use language?
Social world
Context
Interaction
Language Processing
Language Acquisition
Using the scientific methods of psychology to do linguistic research
More on Language and Thought in Week 12
!
Social world
Context
Interaction
Language
Thought
Speaker A
Speaker B
is the study of how humans acquire knowledge of their native language (as infants and as children)
Adapted from http://idiom.ucsd.edu/~rlevy/teaching/2009spring/lign170/lectures/lecture_1/lign170_lecture_1.pdf
is the study of how humans comprehend and produce language (sentences, words within sentences, and sequences of sentences, etc.) in real time.
The study of the relationship between society and language use.
Pre-Birth

Birth - 6 mo.

6-18 mo.

18m- 2 years

2-5 years

6years
Sound

Cooing/Babbling

Holophrastic speech

Echolalia/connation

More-or-less formed

Critical age
Using multiple relative clauses in a sentence can make processing difficult:
This is the malt that the rat that the cat that the dog worried killed ate.

It’s not the meaning of the sentence, or the use of relative clauses, that makes it hard:
This is the malt that was eaten by the rat that was killed by the cat that was worried by the dog.
Examples
Therefore
Psycholinguistics can shed light on how we acquire and understand language
Issues
Gender
Class
Race
Example
Sociology
Linguistics
Sociolinguistics
Psychology
Linguistics
Psycholinguistics
Celia Roberts' work on interviews
How should you answer the question, 'What are your weaknesses?' in a job interview?
Answering the question appropriately requires not only linguistic, but social knowledge.
Key Point
How we talk is an important determiner in how others view us and how we view ourselves
Very small details about how people interact can tell A LOT about what is happening in interaction
Key Point
Different theories of language
Conversation analysis
Ferdinand de Saussure
There is an over-arching system of language common to all humans.
(1857-1913)
Ferdinand de Saussure & Structuralism
Week 8
!
Key Point
History and context matter in theory.
1970s~
1950s
1950s~
Key Terms
Pidgin
is a new language which develops in situations where speakers of different languages need to communicate but don't share a common language
Creole
When children start learning a pidgin as their first language and it becomes the mother tongue of a community
Regional Dialect
is not a distinct language but a variety of a language spoken in a particular area of a country.
Minority Dialect
Sometimes members of a particular minority ethnic group have their own variety which they use as a marker of identity, usually alongside a standard variety.
Indigenized variety
are spoken mainly as second languages in ex-colonies with multilingual populations
http://www.hawaii.edu/satocenter/langnet/definitions/
Malaysian English
Key Point
Pidgins, dialects, and varieties are not planned, but emerge in interaction.
http://www.yorksj.ac.uk/changing-englishes/changing-englishes/unit-2-using-english/world-englishes.aspx
Kachru's Circles
Discussion
What form of English do you want to speak?

Should native English be valued above other forms of English? Why or why not?
Taken from
Standardisation
The process of developing a standard form of a language (not only English)
Benefits
Issues
Read Akmajian & Demers, Chapter 1
Visit: http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Lexicology.html
Task
What's the difference between a 'text' and a random collection of words?
Is my daughter's list of spelling words a 'text' or not?
(Disgusting, told, rolled, towel, mud, pretend, outside)
Task
Choose one kind of grammatical cohesion and one kind of lexical cohesion.
Identify all instances in the text.
Analysis of text for cohesion.
from http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101207/ap_on_hi_te/wikileaks
LONDON – A British judge sent Julian Assange to jail on Tuesday, denying bail to the WikiLeaks founder after Assange vowed to fight efforts to be extradited to Sweden in a sex-crimes investigation.

Despite Assange's legal troubles, a WikiLeaks spokesman insisted the flow of secret U.S. diplomatic cables would not be affected. He also downplayed efforts to constrict the group's finances after both Visa and MasterCard cut off key funding methods Tuesday.

"This will not change our operation," spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson told The Associated Press. As if to underline the point, WikiLeaks released a dozen new diplomatic cables, its first publication in more than 24 hours, including the details of a NATO defense plan for Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania that prompted an indignant response from the Russian envoy to the alliance.

Assange turned himself in to Scotland Yard on Tuesday morning, and was sent to the City of Westminster Magistrates' Court in the early afternoon. He showed no reaction as Judge Howard Riddle denied him bail and sent him to jail until his next extradition hearing on Dec. 14.

"That sounds like good news to me," he said Tuesday.

Riddle asked the 39-year-old Australian whether he understood that he could agree to be extradited to Sweden. Assange, dressed in a navy blue suit, cleared his throat and said: "I understand that and I do not consent."

The judge said he had grounds to believe that the former computer hacker — a self-described homeless refugee — might not show up to his next hearing if he were granted bail.
Arguments during the hour-long hearing detailed the sex accusations against Assange, all of which he has denied.

Attorney Gemma Lindfield, acting on behalf of the Swedish authorities, outlined one allegation of rape, two allegations of molestation and one of unlawful coercion stemming from Assange's separate sexual encounters in August with two women in Sweden.
Task
What would a prescriptivist say needs to be changed here?
How would a descriptivist describe this?
Task
List a time when someone might flout each of the different maxims.

What is the reason for flouting the maxims, in each case?
So...
What's Antoine's problem?
Presentation by Jamie Williams
Key Concept
Adjacency Pair
Sequence of utterances that are:
adjacent
produced by different speakers
orders as a first and second part
typed, so that the first part requires a particular second
Taken from Wooffitt R. (2001) Researching psychic practitioners: Conversation analysis. In: Wetherell M, Taylor S and Yates S (eds) Discourse as data. A guide for analysis. London: Routledge, 49-92.
Preferred and dispreferred responses
Hey, do you want to hang out tonight?
Task
Have you encountered these different understandings of grammar? Where?

Can you think of a situation in which each conception of grammar might be useful?
Crystal's Six Types of Grammar
1. Descriptive
2. Pedagogical
3. Prescriptive
4. Reference
5. Theoretical
6. Traditional
How do proper English and Malaysian English differ in the two videos (in terms of linguistic differences)?
In the presentation of the differences, is one variety favoured over another? How?
Task
Syntax?
Grammar?
Accent?
Task
See handout!
‘The processes of centralization and decentralization, of unification and disunification, intersect in the utterance; the utterance not only answers the requirements of its own language as an individualized embodiment of a speech act, but it answers the requirements of heteroglossia as well; it is an active participant in speech diversity’ (Bakhtin, 1981: 272)
Heteroglossia
Unification and Disunification
Exam Question
Choose two approaches to linguistic analysis discussed during this semester.

Describe both in detail, and compare and contrast them in terms of how they are applied to language data.
Great Essay
Passing Essay
Shows basic knowledge from textbook and/or lectures, but little critical engagement.
Shows basic knowledge from textbook and lectures as well as some critical engagement.
Shows good knowledge from textbook, lectures, supplementary reading as well as critical engagement.
Shows good knowledge from textbook, lectures, supplementary reading as well as critical engagement.
Two basic concepts
Two basic concepts
AND
Their relationship to other ideas
Good night and good luck
Men and women speak in different ways.
Thinking about the kinds of linguistic analysis we've discussed in this class so far, how might you investigate if this is actually the case?
Task
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