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Copy of EU601 course outline

Medical Imaging
by

Roshidi Zakaria

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of EU601 course outline

Course Outline EU601 Medical Imaging 1.2 Understand the ultrasound transducers. 6.2 Understand the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system. 5.5 Understand the clinical applications for radioisotopes imaging 5.4 Understand positron emission tomography. 5.3 Understand single-photon emission tomography. 5.2.1 List the components of a Gamma Camera.
5.2.2 Explain the components of Gamma Camera by using diagrams.
5.2.3 Explain the basic principles of Gamma Camera imaging.
5.2.4 Identify the function of each components of a scintillation camera.
a. Collimators
b. Scintillation crystal
c. Photomultiplier tube
d. Pulse height analyzer
5.2.5 Describe the characteristics of the camera.
5.2.6 Explain the properties of different types of collimators.
5.2.7 Explain the uses of different collimators.
5.2.8 Explain the basic principles of scintillation detector by using diagrams.
5.2.9 Explain the multiple crystal camera.
5.2.10 Identify the function of photomultiplier tube.
5.2.11 Outline the progression of imaging data in a single-crystal camera from release of  ray in the patient to display of a bright spot on the display.
5.2.12 Describe rectilinear scanner. 5.2 Understand radioisotopes imaging equipment. 5.2 Understand radioisotopes imaging equipment. 4.2 Understand the principles of computed tomography. 3.4 Understand digital radiology system. 3.3 Understand the radiography. 3.2 Understand the X-ray production. 2.4 Understand the main units which are used in measurement in radiographic sciences. 2.3.1 Explain the importance of logarithms in the physics of medicine.
2.3.2 Explain growth and decay process by using Exponential Law.
2.3.3 Define The Law of Radioactive Decay.
2.3.4 Explain radioactive decay by using the formula A t A e
2.3.5 Define Half-life and decay constant that correlates with radioactive decay.
2.3.6 Determine radioactive activity after a certain period of time by
using formula A t A e
2.3.7 Appraise radioactive on a log graph paper of radioactive decay.
2.3.8 Explain briefly the use of Exponential Law in medical imaging and medical treatment such as nuclear imaging and thyroid cancer treatment.
2.3.9 Explain Attenuation of electromagnetic radiation by a matter.
2.3.10 Determine the Half-Value Thickness (HVT) of a substance for a particular beam of radiation.
2.3.11 Determine the thickness of shielding by using formula, 2.3 Learn and understand mathematical method in imaging. 2.3 Learn and understand mathematical method in imaging. 2.2.1 Determine the sources of radiation exposure.
2.2.2 Determine the purpose of radiation protection.
2.2.3 Explain the principle of controlling the radiation exposure by using Shielding, Time and Distance.
2.2.4 Identify the ionizing radiation regulation.
2.2.5 Determine the imaging licensing requirements for operating and servicing X-ray equipment.
2.2.6 Explain the inverse square law applications in radiography and
radiation protection.
2.2.7 State the radiation dose – equivalent limit.
2.2.8 Determine the biological effects of ionising radiation.
2.2.9 Identify the Risk-benefit, ALARA (ALARP) and detriment.
2.2.10 Evaluate the impact of radiation hazard on medical imaging practice.
2.2.11 Recommend the safety considerations when dealing with X-
rays. 2.2 Understand the radiation protection. 2.2 Understand the radiation protection. 1.4 Understand the Doppler Effect. 1.3 Understand the ultrasound instrumentation. SYLLABUS
Anil T. Ahuja, Rhodri M. Evans. (2000). Practical head and neck ultrasound, London Greenwich Medical Media Limited. 1900151995 (pbk.).

Arnulf Oppelt. (2005). Imaging systems for medical diagnostics fundamentals, technical solutions and applications for systems applying ionization radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance and ultrasound - 2nd ed. Erlangen Publicis (ISBN 3895782262).

David A. Lisle. (2007). Imaging for students-3rd ed. London Hodder Arnold. (ISBN 9780340925911).

James E. Martin. (2006). Physics of radiation protection a handbook-2nd ed. Weinheim Wiley. VCH. (ISBN 3527406115).

John D. Cutnell, Kenneth W. Johnson. (2001). Physics , Fifth Edition. Churchill Livingstones. (ISBN 0-471-15519-7).

Joseph J. Carr, John M. Brown. (2001). Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology. Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall. (ISBN 0-13-010492-2).

Willian R. Hendee, E. Russell Ritenour. (2002), Medical Imaging Physics, Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publication. (ISBN 0-471-38226-4). REFERENCES ASSESSMENT SPECIFICATION TABLE (AST) ASSESSMENT 6.2.1 State the development of MRI system.
6.2.2 Distinguish the image obtained from MRI system and other imaging modalities.
6.2.3 Compare MRI imaging modality with other imaging modalities
in term of "tissue differentiation".
6.2.4 Determine the basic components MRI system.
6.2.5 Draw the block diagram of MRI system.
6.2.6 Explain the functions for every components in the MRI system.
6.2.7 Explain the principles of MRI operation.
6.2.8 Compare the advantages of MRI compared to the other imaging modalities. 6.2 Understand the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system. 6.1.1 List the primary characteristic of magnetic fields as the heart of the MRI system.
6.1.2 Define the magnetic nuclei.
6.1.3 State magnetic nuclei isotopes and non magnetic nuclei isotopes.
6.1.4 Compare magnetic nuclei isotope and non magnetic isotopes.
6.1.5 Explain the radio frequency exchange between the imaging system and the patient body.
6.1.6 List the types of pulse which are applied to the patient body during imaging cycle.
6.1.7 Explain the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance involving a series of interactions of the magnetic nuclei, a magnetic field and RF energy pulses and signals.
6.1.8 Explain the nuclear magnetic interactions in MRI system.
6.1.9 Describe excitation and relaxation proses.
6.1.10 Explain the following tissue magnetization and relaxation process.
a. Longitudinal magnetization and relaxation
b. Transverse magnetization and relaxation 6.1 Understand the nuclear magnetic resonance. 6.1 Understand the nuclear magnetic resonance. 6.0 MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING 5.5.1 Explain the examples of clinical application for radioisotopes imaging. 5.5 Understand the clinical applications for radioisotopes imaging 5.4.1 Describe the acquisition for positron emission tomography (PET).
5.4.2 Describe the presentation for positron emission tomography (PET).
5.4.3 Describe the properties of images for positron emission tomography (PET). 5.4 Understand positron emission tomography. 5.3.1 Describe the acquisition for single positron emission tomography.
5.3.2 Describe the presentation for single positron emission tomography.
5.3.3 Describe the properties of images for single positron emission tomography. 5.3 Understand single-photon emission tomography. 5.1.1 Define isotopes and radioisotopes.
5.1.2 Differentiate between stable and unstable radioisotopes by giving examples.
5.1.3 Explain briefly the role of radioisotopes imaging in medicine.
5.1.4 Describe the principles and application of rate measurements with radioactive nuclides.
5.1.5 Explain the radioactive decay process with regard to half life.
5.1.6 Determine the criteria for selection of isotopes for imaging.
5.1.7 Define the function of radioisotopes in medical imaging.
5.1.8 Explain the method of radioisotopes production such as from nuclear reactor, nuclear fission, cyclotron and Technetium generator by using Milking Cow method.
5.1.9 State the types of radioactive radiation that are used in medicine. 5.1 Understand radioisotope imaging. 5.1 Understand radioisotope imaging. 5.0 THE PHYSICS OF RADIOISOTOPES IMAGING 4.2.1 Explain the principles of x-ray transmission computed tomography.
4.2.2 Compare the properties of x-ray projection images with x-ray CT images.
4.2.3 Describe a brief history of the evolution of x-ray CT image.
4.2.4 Describe different approaches to the reconstruction of CT images from projection measurement.
4.2.5 List types of the scanning mode of x-ray tube movement.
4.2.6 Illustrate the configuration of spiral mode.
4.2.7 Illustrate other approaches to fast CT scanning (“ultrafast” CT scanner).
4.2.8 Outline the following features used in x-ray CT:
4.2.12 Distinguish the relationship between CT number, linear attenuation coefficients and physical densities associated with CT scanning.
4.2.13 Identify various important characteristics in quality control of CT unit.
4.2.14 Relate how the quality assurance in CT affecting the radiation doses.
4.2.15 Apply knowledge of radiation control in controlling the radiation dose to the patient. 4.2 Understand the principles of computed tomography 4.1.1 Explain the needs for cross sectional image.
4.1.2 Identify the limitation in conventional radiography compares with Computed Tomography.
4.1.3 Compare the image obtained from x-ray and CT scan machine.
4.1.4 Explain why CT scan has better tissue differentiation compare with x-ray imaging. 4.1 Understand the needs for cross sectional image. 4.1 Understand the needs for cross sectional image. 4.0 COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND CLINICAL APPLICATION 3.4.1 Describe the techniques to acquire radiographic images digitally.
3.4.2 Explain the system for digital radiology.
3.4.3 Define the function of digital detector in radiography.
3.4.4 Explain direct and indirect energy conversion in large-area digital detectors.
3.4.5 Determine the advantages and the use of digital radiology. 3.4 Understand digital radiology system. 3.3.1 Define the expression “radiography”.
3.3.2 Draw diagrams of the system for producing X- ray image.
3.3.3 Describe the construction of radiographic film.
3.3.4 Explain the principle of operation of the radiographic screen.
3.3.5 Determine five different types of radiographic grids. 3.3 Understand the radiography. 3.2.1 Describe the use of x-ray in medical field.
3.2.2 List four criteria to produce medical images with x-ray.
3.2.3 Identify each components of an x-ray tube.
3.2.4 List two types x-ray tube.
3.2.5 Sketch the cross sectional diagram of the rotating anode x-ray tubes.
3.2.6 Sketch the cross sectional diagram of the stationary anode x-ray tubes.
3.2.7 Compare the application of rotating anode and stationary anode.
3.2.8 Explain the function of each components of an x-ray tube.
3.2.9 Explain the conversion of electron energy imparted to the target material.
3.2.10 Determine the physics of thermionic emission.
3.2.11 Construct a simple block diagram of an x-ray machine.
3.2.12 Explain the function of each block of an x-ray machine.
3.2.13 Compare single and three phase voltage and various modes of voltage rectification.
3.2.14 Explain the basic principle in generating X-Rays.
3.2.15 Draw energy spectrum that are generated by X-Ray tube.
3.2.16 Explain the shape of the x-ray spectrum.
3.2.17 Distinguish the Bremstrahlung and characteristics radiation.
3.2.18 Determine factors that influence the x-ray spectrum (quality and quantity of radiation).
3.2.19 Determine the importance of physical parameters in relation to the performance of diagnostic radiological medical imaging.
3.2.20 Determine the concept of x-ray beam hardening.
3.2.21 Determine x-ray tube rating limits and charts.
3.2.22 Identify the methods of heat dissipation.
3.2.23 Explain the interaction of radiation with matters.
3.2.24 Determine factors that affect the penetration of radiation through a specific object. 3.2 Understand the X-ray production. 3.1.1 List the source of electromagnetic 3.1.2 Explain the size of wavelength distance that determines the size of the object with which electromagnetic radiation will
interact. 3.1 Understand the source of electromagnetic radiation. 3.1 Understand the source of electromagnetic radiation. 3.0 ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND RADIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS IN MEDICAL IMAGING 2.4.1 Define the derived SI units used in radiographic science.
2.4.2 Define the units of measurement used in radiography
a. kVp
c. keV
d. Heat Units (HU)
2.4.3 Determine the heat generated in Heat Unit (HU) by the particular setting of exposure.
2.4.4 Explain the mechanisms of transferring heat in different types of x-ray tubes. 2.4 Understand the main units which are used in measurement in radiographic sciences. 2.1.1 Describe the basic principles of:
a. Diagnostic radiography
b. Therapy radiography
2.1.2 Categorize ionizing medical imaging machine and non ionizing medical machine. 2.1 Understand the basic principles of ionizing radiation for medical radiography. 2.1 Understand the basic principles of ionizing radiation for medical radiography. 2.0 PRINCIPLES OF RADIOGRAPHY 1.4.1 Define the Doppler Effect.
1.4.2 State the Doppler Effect equation.
1.4.3 Determine the Doppler Shift using Doppler Equation.
1.4.4 Describe the effect of Doppler angle upon frequency shift.
1.4.5 Explain briefly the use of Doppler Effect in the measurement of blood flow.
1.4.6 Determine the main components of a Doppler ultrasound
imager.
1.4.7 Compare two different modes of Doppler applications
a. Continuous Wave (CW)
b. Pulsed Doppler
1.4.8 Compare the differences between information obtained from pulsed-wave versus continuous-wave Doppler.
1.4.9 Describe the main features of a frequency spectrum.
1.4.10 Describe how color is assigned in color Doppler.
1.4.11 Determine some reasons for spectral broadening.
1.4.12 Explain the limitation of Doppler systems.
1.4.13 Operate the ultrasound machine for the purpose of physiological parameters measurement and medical diagnosis.
1.4.14 Conduct performance testing of ultrasound machine. 1.4 Understand the Doppler Effect 1.3.1 Compare three modes of ultrasound imaging.
1.3.2 Construct the block diagram of ultrasound imaging system.
1.3.3 Identify the block diagram of ultrasound imaging system.
1.3.4 Determine the function of each component.
1.3.5 Explain the preprocessing required in obtaining digital data from ultrasound signal.
1.3.6 Define the term time gain compensation.
1.3.7 Explain how post processing is used to change the appearance of an ultrasound image.
1.3.8 State basic scanning patterns (scan method) of the transducer.
1.3.9 Differentiate between each transducer scan method.
1.3.10 Determine several common artifacts in ultrasound images.
1.3.11 Explain several common ultrasound quality control tests. 1.3 Understand the ultrasound instrumentation 1.2.1 Explain the piezoelectric effect and its use in ultrasound transducers.
1.2.2 State the advantages of piezoelectric ceramics.
1.2.3 Illustrate the general composition of ultrasonic transducer.
1.2.4 Sketch the general construction of ultrasonic transducer.
1.2.5 Calculate the frequency resonance of the transducer.
1.2.6 Distinguish the properties of an ultrasound transducer, including those that influence the resonance frequency.
1.2.7 Determine the frequency response of transducers.
1.2.8 Describe the characteristics of focused ultrasound beams and various ultrasound probes.
1.2.9 Determine the focusing characteristics of the transducer.
1.2.10 Identify different approaches to multi transducer array and the advantages of each. 1.2 Understand the ultrasound transducers 1.1.1 Describe the use of ultrasound for therapeutic and diagnostic.
1.1.2 Discover ultrasound medical imaging as in the group of a non- ionizing medical imaging.
1.1.3 Define sound wave.
1.1.4 Differentiate between sound wave and ultrasound.
1.1.5 List the types of basic waves.
1.1.6 Define the types of basic waves.
1.1.7 Explain the properties of ultrasound waves.
1.1.8 Determine the ultrasound properties of velocity, attenuation and absorption.
1.1.9 Define the attenuation of ultrasound waves.
1.1.10 Explain the consequences of an impedance mismatch at the boundary between two regions of tissue.
1.1.11 Draw the mind map of interactions of ultrasound at boundaries of materials.
1.1.12 Define the acoustic impedance of ultrasound.
1.1.13 Determine the acoustic impedance, Z of a medium.
1.1.14 Determine the fraction of the incident energy that is reflected (the reflection coefficient R) using formula
1.1.15 Determine the fraction of the incident energy that is transmitted (transmitted coefficient R) across an interface using formula
1.1.16 Determine ultrasound reflection when ultrasound wave incident at an interface of two different medium of different acoustic impedance. 1.1 Understand the physic of sound waves. 1.1 Understand the physic of sound waves. 1.0 ULTRASOUND IMAGING Introduction to the phenomenon of magnetism and its application to radiographic science, nuclear magnetic resonance, components and functions of every section of MRI system, the principle of MRI, and the advantages and the needs of MRI. 6.0 MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING The role of radioisotopes imaging, radionuclide for imaging, method of producing radioisotopes, radiation detector device, radioisotopes imaging equipment, single-photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography and radioisotopes imaging for clinical use. 5.0 THE PHYSICS OF RADIOISOTOPES IMAGING The needs for cross sectional image, the principle of cross sectional imaging, method of generating CT image, the reconstruction of CT images from projection measurement and the advantages of CT scan 4.0 COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY AND CLINICAL USAGE Electromagnetic source, the principle of x-ray generation, x-ray system, radiography and digital radiology. 3.0 ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION AND RADIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS IN MEDICAL IMAGING Basic principles of ionizing radiation for medical radiography, radiation protection, mathematical method in imaging, Law of Radioactive Decay, Half-life and the Decay Constant, electromagnetic radiation attenuation, and the use of Exponential Law in medical imaging and medical treatment.
SI units used in radiographic science, Heat Unit (HU), mechanisms of transferring heat in different types of the x-ray tubes. 2.0 PRINCIPLES OF RADIOGRAPHY Physic of sound waves, wave generation, types of wave, wave characteristics, ultrasound reflection, ultrasound transducers, ultrasound instrumentation, the Doppler Effect, and the use of Doppler method in ultrasound imaging and the measurement of blood flow as well as skill in operating Ultrasound Imaging equipment. 1.0 ULTRASOUND IMAGING 1.0 Ultrasound Imaging

2.0 Principles of Radiography

3.0 Electromagnetic Radiation And Radiological Diagnosis In Medical Imaging

4.0 Computerized Tomography And Clinical Usage

5.0 The Physics of Radioisotopes Imaging

6.0 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Topics Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:-
 1. state clearly five types of equipment that are used in medical imaging. (C1)

2. explain correctly the basic concept of ultrasound wave and electromagnetic waves used in medical imaging. (C4)

3. Use the exponential law in calculating the radioactive decay and electromagnetic radiation attenuation by substance. (C3)

4. conduct the equipment properly using medical imaging equipment standard operation procedure. (P2)

5. participate effectively as a team member while doing the practical works. (A2) LEARNING OUTCOMES MEDICAL IMAGING covers the basic, scientific and principles of radiological physics in medical imaging.
Course emphasis is on the basic principles of non-ionizing and ionizing medical imaging.
This course covers topics involving imaging modalities such as Diagnostic Ultrasound, X-ray, Computed Tomography, Radioisotopes Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging as well as skill in operating certain imaging equipment. SYNOPSIS   COURSE EU601 MEDICAL IMAGING
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