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Cognition & Intelligence

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Teaysha Samuel

on 21 October 2016

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Transcript of Cognition & Intelligence

Gardner’s 8 Multiple Intelligences
Decision Making
Problem Solving

Concept Formations
From formal definition of concept.
Ex. Using charts to classify things
Memorizing concept’s common features.
Experiences with positive and negative instances of concept.
Ex. Love in story books verse real life

Qualities of a Good Test
Decision Making
Systematic Decision Making
Examining all possible alternatives; choosing most beneficial.

Elimination by Aspects
Eliminate alternatives that do not match each factor.
Choose remaining alternative
Produce original, appropriate, valuable ideas, solutions to problems.

Divergent Thinking
Produce multiple ideas, answers, solutions to problem.
Novel ideas involving combination and synthesis of unusual associations.

Cognition & Intelligence
The mental processes involved acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using Information
Represent or picture a sensory experience in one’s mind.

Two steps in the formation of visuals
1) We retrieve stored memories of how the objects looks
2) We use our mental processes to arrange and assemble those parts into whole


represents class or group of objects, people, events sharing common characteristics or attributes.

Concepts helps us order our world, think and communicate with speed
Concepts can be

Tangible objects Organism Abstract

Concept Formation
Through use of Prototype
Ex. that embodies most common features of particular concept.

Through use of Exemplar
Ex. Individual instances of concept that have been stored concept in memory from experiences.

“gut feelings” or “instincts"
They tend to based on emotions which can sometimes cloud our logic
focusing on single factor magnifies importance of factor relevant to other factors.
Ex. Making the minimum payment on
credit cards

Information emphasizes potential
gain or loss.

Rules of thumb based on experience
Decision Making
Decision Making
Decision Making
Rules of thumb that are derived from various life experiences

Availability heuristic
Probability of event corresponds to ease which event comes to mind.

Decision Making
Representativeness heuristic
Based on new situation resembling familiar one.

Recognition heuristic
Decisions terminate as soon as factor moving to decision recognized.

Problem Solving
The thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal
Trial and Error
Try one solution after another

Systematic, step-by-step procedure
guarantees solution
to problem of certain type if
executed properly

Problem Solving & Heuristics
Analogy heuristic
Comparing problem to others from past.
"If it worked before, it will work again"

Working backwards
(a.k.abackward search)
Start with solution and work backward through problem.

Means-end analysis
Current position compared with desired goal; close gap between two positions.

Functional Fixedness
Failure to use familiar objects in
novel ways to solve problems.

Mental Set
Mental rut in solving problems.
Continue using same old method even if another approach is better.
Barriers in problem solving

Genuine creativity rarely
appears in sudden flashes. It a beautiful concept is incubated until
the right time

The essence of creativity is the thinkers ability to fit ideas together that might appear remote or unrelated
The ability to understand complex ideas
Adapt effectively to the environment
To learn from experience
To engage in various forms of reasoning
To overcome obstacles by trying thought

Factors Underlying Intelligence
Charles Spearman observed people bright in one area usually bright in other areas also.
General ability or g factor underlying all intellectual functions.
Other abilities named s factors for specific abilities.

Louis Thurstone and seven primary mental abilities.
- Verbal Comprehension - Reasoning
- Numerical Ability - Word Fluency
- Spatial relation - Memory
- Perceptual Speed
All intellectual activities involve one or more primary mental abilities.

Factors Underlying Intelligence
Factors Underlying Intelligence
J.P. Guilford’s structure of intellect.
Three dimensions: mental operations, contents, products.
Memory recording and memory retention.

Experiential Intelligence
Encompasses creativity.
Encompasses insight.

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Contextual (practical) Intelligence
“Street smarts.”
Adapt well to environment.
Change environment to improve success, find new environment.

Componential Intelligence
Mental abilities closely related to success on conventional IQ and achievement tests.

Binet: children with mental age two years below chronological age were disabled.
Stern; IQ: divide mental age by chronological age.
Terman: and multiply by 100.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

Norms = standards based on scores of many.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test = individually administered IQ test ages 2 to 23.

Deviation Score = compare individual’s score with those of same age on whom test’s norms were formed.

Intelligence Test
Reliability = same score each time test taken.
Validity = test measures what it should.
Standardization = establishing norms by which all scores are interpreted.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) = individual intelligence test for adults.
Yields separate verbal and performance IQ scores.
Overall IQ score.
Intelligence Tests
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