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6 Kingdoms of Life
Transcript of 6 Kingdoms of Life
Many have little toxic threads or darts that they can discharge to defend themselves.
Typical examples include Paramecium and Bkepharisma. Rhodophyta Chloroplasts in this group show pigments very similar to those found in cyanobacteria, and ancient red algae may have engulfed these cyanobacteria as endosymbionts. Red algae have many important commercial applications, such as the agar used for culture plates. Its cell walls contain carrageenan, a polysaccharide used in the manufacture of ice cream, paint, and cosmetics. Euglenophyta Plant or Animal? Some think this organism resulted from endosymbiosis in which a ancestral form engulfed a green algal cell. Zoomastigina Flagellum and absence of chloroplasts. Flegella are frequently relatively long and few in number. Either pulling the cell by a propeller like motion or pushing the cell like the tail of a tadpole or sperm cell. Chlorophyta This group of algae mostly fresh-water.
All members possess chlorophylls a and b and
store energy as starch. Some of these are the largest algae reaching lengths of nearly 100 meters. They possess chlorophylls a and c like some of the unicellular algae and store energy as carbohydrate laminarin. Most species are marine and found in cool temperature regions. Examples include Fucus and Laminaria. Phaeophyta Bryophyta Photosynthetic, non-vascular plants.
Root-like structures are rhizoids. Pterophyta Leaves with many veins called fronds.
Reproduce vegetatively by extension of rhizome underground.
Sporophyte generation is dominant.
The gemetophyte is tiny, green and independent of the sporophyte plant. Anthophyta Ovules enclosed in a carpel. Most use insects and animals for transferring pollen. Heterosporous. Most angiosperms have vessel elements that are shorter, wider cells, which are arranged end to end forming continuous tubes. Gingophyta Broad, fan-shaped leaves. The stroboli are two kinds and borne on separate trees. Coniferophyta Needle-shaped leaves. Reproductive structures are produced mostly in cones. Transfer pollen, male gametophyte, to female reproductive parts via wind. Sporophyte is large, conspicuous and dominant. Cycadophyta Palm like leaves which are tough and leathery and pnnately divided into leaflets.
Short woody stems. All have two kinds of stroboli borne on separate plants. Basidomycota Includes mushrooms. Dispersed by spores at tips of basidia. Masses of interwoven hyphae growing up from the main mass of the mycelium growing underground. Ascomycota Asexual spores called conidia. Acospores are produced following sexual reproduction. Deutromycota Spores produced asexually. Possess cell walls. Most have a well-developed, septate mycelium, some are siphonaceous Zygomycota Forms spores in a sporangium. Examples
include bread mold and Rhizopus oryzae. Coniferophyta Bryophyta Pterophyta Cycadophyta Gingophyta Porifera Feed through pours on outer walls. Cellular level organization.
Both asexual and sexual. Skeleton composed of collegen and spicules.
Also known as sponges. Cnidaria Radially symmetric. Two different forms: medusa and polyp.
Has distinct larval stage, which is planktonic. Lives in aquatic environments, mostly marine.
Has a mouth and internal cavity. Mostly carnivorous but otherwise filter feeders.
Multicellular which few tissues and some organelles. Platyhelminthes Bilaterally symmetrical. Body has 3 layers of tissue with organs and organelles. No internal cavity. Possesses a blind gut and has Protonephridial excretory organs instead of anus. Has normally a nervous system of longitudinal fibres rather than a net. Generally dorsoventrally flattened. Reproduction mostly sexual as hermaphrodites. Mostly they feed on animals and other smaller life forms. Some species occur in all major habitats, including many as parasites of other animals. Nematoda Bilaterally symmetrical, and vermiform. Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Body cavity is a pseudocoel, body fluid under high pressure. Body possesses a through gut with a subterminal anus.Body covered in a complex cuticle. Has a nervous system with pharyngeal nerve ring. Has no circulatory system (no blood system) Reproduction normally sexual and gonochoristic. Feed on just about everything. Live just about everywhere, many species are endoparasites.\ Annelida Bilaterally symmetrical and vermiform. Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Body cavity is a true coelom, often divided by internal septa. Body possesses a through gut with mouth and anus. Body possesses 3 separate sections, a prosomium, a trunk and a pygidium. Has a nervous system with an anterior nerve ring, ganglia and a ventral nerve chord. Has a true closed circulatory system. Has no true respiratory organs. Reproduction normally sexual and gonochoristic or hermaphoditic. Feed a wide range of material. Live in most environments. Mollusca Bilaterally symmetrical. Body has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs. Body without cavity. Body possesses a through gut with mouth and anus. Body monomeric and highly variable in form, may possess a dorsal or lateral shells of protein and calcareous spicules. Has a nervous system with a circum-oesophagal ring, ganglia and paired nerve chords. Has an open circulatory system with a heart and an aorta. Has gaseous exchange organs called ctenidial gills. Has a pair of kidneys. Reproduction normally sexual and gonochoristic. Feed a wide range of material. Live in most environments. Echinodermata Sea lilies, Starfish, Bristle Stars, Sea urchins, and sea cucumbers. Largest phylum to lack any freshwater or land representatives. Most are pentamemal, five-fold symmetry. All are marine. Range from few millimeters to a few decimeters in size. Chordata Body segmentation, endoskeleton, pharyngeal pouches, complete digestive system, ventral heart, closed blood system, and a tail. Anthropoda Archaebacteria
Eubacteria Archaea This group of single-celled microorganisms has no cell nucleus or any sort of membrance bound organelles. While visually similar to bacteria, they are quite different from bacteria and have a distinct evolutionary history and possess genes and several metabolic pathways more closely related to eukaryotes. Eubacteria This large domain of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms have a wide range of shapes and are ubiquitous to every habitat on Earth. They do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles Segmented body and paired segmented appendages. Bilaterally symmetric and ha a tubular ailemtary canal with mouth and anus. Respiration by means of gills, or trachaea and spiracles. Subphylum Vertebrata Myxini Cephalaspidomorphi Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Myxini Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia Osteichthyes Cephalaspidomorphi Chondrichthyes Also known as Hagfish, have long eel-like bodies and paddle-like tails. They have cartilaginous skulls and tooth-like structures composed of keratin. Possesses 6 to 8 barbels around mouth and a single nostril. Mouth is composed of two pairs of horny, comb-shaped teeth on cartilaginous plate that protracts and retracts. Glandular skin without external scales, by gills during development, and by eggs that may have jelly coats but develop without formation of extraembryonic membranes such as the amnion. Most have 4 limbs and are adapted to life on land. Lays eggs in water. Coldblooded with scales/scutes covering skin. Most are tetrapods with 4 legs or leg-like appendages. They reproduce with amniotic eggs. Considered tetrapods even though some of them do not have legs. They have endothermic bodies and a 4-chambered heart. There is hair of some kind present and they have 3 middle ear bones and possess sweat glands. Lay eggs, are adapted for flight (although some species have lost this ability), have scaly legs and feathers, possess a beak instead of teeth, and possess a highly efficient cardiopulmonary system. Also known as lampreys, they physically resemble eels in that they have no scales and can range from 13 to 100 cm. One nostril is atop the head and 7 gill pores on each side of the head. Cartilaginous skull as well. Jawed fish with paired fins, paired nairs, scales, two-chambered hearts, and skeletons composed of cartilage rather than bone. Bony fish with a flap called the operculum. The movement of these flaps allow fish to breathe without moving. Majority are marine and gold fish and rainbow fish are a few examples of fresh water fish. Viruses Viruses are small infectious agents that can replicate inside the loving cells or organisms. They infect all types of organisms. There have been discovered 5,000 viruses. Virus particles consist of two or three parts: the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic informationan; protein coat that protects these genes and in some cases an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat when they are outside a cell. It is still a very debatable idea whether viruses are dead or alive sine they require a host in order to show sign of life but otherwise remain relatively inactive outside a host. Mostly unicellular but some can be multicellular or colonial organisms. They can be free living or parasites and are true eukaryotes and are nucleated. Description Mostly unicellular but some can be multicellular or colonial organisms. Algae are an example of a multicellular protist. They are radially symmetrical. Body Plan They can have both modes nutrition: autotrophy and heterotrophy. Metabolism Digestion Intracellular digestion. Respiratory Cellular respiration. Reproduction Can reproduce sexually or asexually. Amoeba reproduces asexually and Ciliate protists tend to reproduce sexually. Examples:
Amoeba Algae Description Live and land and water habitats. Root system branches out and provides support for plant while absorbing water. Stem provides support and the petal is the reproductive organ of the plant. Body Plan Multicellular with cell walls made of cellulose. Metabolism Autotrophs. Digestion Intracellular Nervous No nervous sytem. Respiratory Cellular respiration Reproduction Both asexual and sexual. Angiosperms reproduce sexually while most flowering plants reproduce asexually. Description Eukaryotic, non-vascular organisms. Like plants, they have an alternation of generations. Body Plan Some multicellular and some unicellular. Molds are unicellular while mushrooms are multicellular. Metabolism All are heterotrophic absorbing their nutrients from the soil. Digestion Extracellular reproduction. Use enzymes to break down and then absorb food. Respiratory Cellular respiration. Reproduction Both asexual and sexual reproducing. Lichens reproduce asexually and zygomycota reproduce sexually. Examples Bread Mold Mushroom Description Describes every living, breathing animal on the planet. All have eukaryotics cells. It is thought animals evolved from single flagellated eukaryotics cells. Body Plan Multicellular. Metabolism Animals are heterotrophic. Digestion Digestion usually occurs internally. The hydra, a coelentrate marine organism, has both an intracellular and extracellular method of digestion. Circulatory The structure of the heart depends on the class of organism with some having two, three or four chambered hearts. Respiratory Makes use of many forms of respiration from lungs to gills. Reproduction All animalia are sexually reproducing organisms. Examples Felis catus Carassius auratus auratus Examples Helianthus annuus Oak Tree