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States Of Matter

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by

Srikar Bodla

on 7 July 2014

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Transcript of States Of Matter

States Of Matter
States Of Matter
Many examples of gases
Gaseous State
Summary
Why?
How many kinds of states?
Solid
Liquid
Gas
E
When air or gas is ionized(Divided in to electrons and protons), plasma is formed
My personal favorite :)
All stars in the universe
Fire, spark, neon lights.....
How does one state
convert to another ?
Lets do some examples
Summary
Ideal vs Real Gas
Particles of an IDEAL gas…
have no volume.
have elastic collisions.
are in constant, random, straight-line motion.
don’t attract or repel each other..

Gas
Characteristic features of a Gas
Pressure
Mass
Volume
Temperature
Gas behavior is most ideal…
at low pressures
at high temperatures
in nonpolar atoms/molecule

Boyle's Law
“Father of Modern Chemistry”
Robert Boyle
Chemist & Natural Philosopher
Listmore, Ireland
January 25, 1627 – December 30, 1690

The Law
Pressure and volume are inversely related at constant temperature.
PV = K (constant)
As one goes up, the other goes down.
P1V1 = P2V2
Charle's Law
Jacques-Alexandre Charles
Mathematician, Physicist, Inventor
Beaugency, France
November 12, 1746 – April 7, 1823

The Law
Volume of a gas varies directly with the absolute temperature at constant pressure.
V = KT
V1 / T1 = V2 / T2

Physicist
Turin, Italy
August 9, 1776 – July 9, 1856

The Law
At constant temperature and pressure, the volume of a gas is directly related to the number of moles.
V = K n
V1 / n1 = V2 / n2
This law is so simple !!
What is a Mole?
It is an SI unit
1 Mol = 6.022 x 10^23
Ideal Gas Equation
V = R (nT/P)
or
PV = nRT

R is the ideal or universal gas constant
The Himalayas
Existence of Gas
Inverted glass: An inverted glass is
pushed down into a trough of water.
When the glass is under the water it
remains ‘empty’ as the trapped air
keeps the water out, showing that air is
a real substance.
Inter molecular forces
Fluidity: Can you push your hand
through?
A hand can pass through the gas and
liquid, but not the solid.
the plungers of sealed
syringes of solids, liquids and gases are
pushed down by the pupils.
There is little difference between the
compressibility of solids and liquids,
but gases are easily compressed.
Compressibility
Deodrant
Necklace

Plasma
Glass
Conversion system
The Enthalpy
also called as Thermodynamic Energy
Attraction force, Molecular motion,Shape,Volume, Mass, Compressibility, Flow
"the 4th state"
Ever wonder what is a Plasma TV?
Melting
Freezing
Vaporization
Condensation
Sublimation
Deposition
Melting is a physical process that results in the transition of a substance from
a solid to a liquid
typically by
heat
Enthalpy rises

Freezing, or solidification, is a process of transition from
a liquid to a solid
when its temperature is lowered

Enthalpy falls
Vaporization of a compound is a state transition from the
liquid state to gas state
typically by application of heat

Enthalpy rises
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from
gas state to liquid state

Enthalpy falls
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from
the solid to the gas
phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase

Enthalpy rises
Deposition, also known as desublimation, is a process, in which
gas transforms into solid.

Enthalpy falls
Practice
A bubble is of radius 20mm radius at bottom of a fully filled tumbler of height 8cm. What will be its size at a depth of 1cm ?
A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies 3.20 L at
120 degrees Celsius. At what temperature will the gas occupy a volume of 1.6L if the pressure remains constant?

Concept of Kelvin
All temperatures must be in K (Kelvin)
Ammonia burns in oxygen to form nitric oxide (NO) and water vapor. How many volumes of NO are obtained from one volume of ammonia at the same temperature and pressure?
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