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Ocean Basins 11.1*

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Team Juan

on 24 May 2015

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Transcript of Ocean Basins 11.1*

Ocean Basins 11.1
The Atlantic Ocean is growing by centimeters each year. Each year, the "Atlantic Rift" opens up a little wider, separating Europe from North America. This is why there are so many earthquakes in Japan and California, in the "Ring of Fire" - the Pacific is being squashed!
Did you know?
In the Pacific Ocean lies a trench called the Marianas Trench. This trench is the deepest part of any ocean in the entire world. At its highest depth, it is 11,033m down from the ocean surface.
What are the features
of an ocean floor?
The Origin of Ocean Water
This image shows how volcanoes helped form Earth's oceans
The Earth started as a hot ball of molten rock. Heat continued to be released through volcanoes.
Water trapped inside the volcanic material was released into the atmosphere.

The water vapour cools and condenses and falls to Earth's surface as precipitation

The vasts amount of water begin collecting in the lowest parts of Earth's surface, the ocean basins. Comets also
contributed to the
origin of ocean water.
Josh Wilson Connie
Ocean Basins 11.1
Introduction to Oceans
In addition to that, the features that are under the ocean tend to be much larger compared to the similar features found on land.
Many features found on land, also exist on the ocean floor. Such as, mountain ranges, valleys, flat plains, canyons, and volcanoes.
continental margin
is the region of the ocean floor that lies underwater along the continents.

These margins are made up of a
continental shelf
, which is a flat shelf that extends from the shoreline to the ocean basin.
continental slope
is a steep area that drops off rapidly to the ocean basin from the edge of the continental shelf.

An average width of a continental shelf is about 80 km and the depth ranges around 30 to 600 m.
Continental Margins
Shaping the
ocean surface
Name a submarine canyon that lies off the coast of Vancouver Island.
Explain what a turbidity current is.
Sediments are carried into the ocean by rivers but when the buildup of sediment is too great, this causes a
turbidity current
Turbidity currents deposit sloping piles of sediment which then forms the continental rise. This is between the abyssal plain and the continental slope.
Turbidity currents are powerful enough to carve out large sections of the continental shelf and continental slope, which creates
submarine canyons.
These result in underwater landscapes.
Submarine canyons are found where large rivers reach the ocean.
Earth's crust is composed of large portions of solid rock known as tectonic plates that float over magma. The thing that had the greatest effect on shaping the ocean basins is the movement of Earth's crust because of
tectonic processes
Turbidity currents are basically underwater landslides.
When two plates are pushed apart, the magma underneath will ooze up into the empty space creating a
mid-ocean ridge.
As the magma cools, it becomes a new rock
on Earth and can usually be as high as 3 km
and 1000 km wide.
The rising and hardening of the magma
forces continuous movement, creating wider ocean floors.
There are two types of tectonic plates
Oceanic plates
: lies under oceans, denser than continental plates
Continental plates
: lies under continents
As magma heats up from the energy in
Earth's core, the molten rock rises. The
pressure that asserts from this can
force two plates apart.
Location of submarine canyons off the coast
of B.C.
Some of the submarine canyons lying of the B.C continental slope include Barkley Canyon,
Juan de Fuca Canyon and Willapa Canyon.
What are the continental margins made up
of? (Name 3 of the 4)
What mostly contributed to the origin
of ocean water?
What do you call a wide, flat area between
trenches and mid-ocean ridges?
Explain how the ocean floor would become
Plates will not always be pushed away forever from each other. Eventually the plates will collide and
will occur.
What are the two types of tectonic plates?
How is a trench formed?
Subduction is the process in which an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate and the oceanic plate slips underneath the continental plate due to it being denser.
In between trenches and mid-ocean ridges are wide, flat areas called
abyssal plains
. Sometimes they are broken by occasional
, which are old inactive volcanoes, originally formed near mid-ocean ridges but were moved away as the plates moved apart.
When subduction occurs, a
is formed. A trench is a long V-shaped groove. It marks the boundary between a continental plate and an oceanic plate.
Tectonic Processes
Surrounding the middle are rising outside edges, the continental margins
The general ocean basin in the middle part is the largest
The two distinct parts of the ocean floor
What is an ocean basin?
An ocean basin is a low point on Earth's surface where water flowed into over time. Erosion and weathering have helped carve valleys and mountains but these forces don't occur under the ocean.
However, similar forces are at work helping change the ocean floor. Storm waters help erode coral reefs and icebergs can carve deep grooves into the floor.
In 2003, a type of sponge thought to be extinct for millions of years was discovered in Hecate Strait. The sponges form building-sized structures called reefs, some of which are in 200m-deep water on British Columbia's continental shelf
1. Most of the water that originally formed the oceans billions of years ago came from two different sources. What were these sources?

2. Valleys and mountains were carved by two forces on Earth's surface but don't occur under the ocean. Name these two forces.

3. What significance does magma have in tectonic processes?

4. What are the two types of tectonic plates? Give on characteristic for each.

5. What is subduction?

6. What marks the boundary between an oceanic plate and continental plate?

7. Explain what a continental margin is.

8. What is a turbidity current?

9. Turbidity currents are able to carve out large sections of the continental shelf and continental slope, what do you call this?

10. What is an ocean basin?
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