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Musculoskeletal system

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Georgina Gáti

on 17 March 2015

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Transcript of Musculoskeletal system

CT is a very important imaging modality in skeletal imaging especially in assessing trauma and complex bone lesions. CT offers excellent spatial resolution and allows detailed assessment of bone and surrounding soft tissue due to its good contrast resolution.

Bones, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments...
Fracture of the scaphoid
paraarticular calcification
Renal osteodystrophia (ROD)
Muscle infarction in severe diabetes
patella tendinitis meniscus rupture
subperiosteal resorption
Developing bone
Anatomic shape, form and alignment
Position of articulating structures
Mineral density
Cortex and corticalis
Medullary bone structure
Joint surface and joint space
Soft tissue
Foreign bodies
Rheumatoid arthritis
Degenerative joint disease - Arthrosis
Marble bone disease
Osteomalacia (disturbances of vitamin D metabolism)
arthritis tuberculosa
Osteogenesis imperfecta:
skeletal fragility, impaired bone growth, blue sclera, deformities...

Inherited disorder:
The heatlthy bone
Achilles tendon rupture

musculus pectoralis major rupture

Multiple myeloma:
spina bifida
Breast cancer
Bone metastases:
Bone cysts
pathologic fracture of the fibula
The musculoskeletal system
Technical modalities
Conventional radiography
Stress films
Computed tomography
Magnetic resonance imaging
Nuclear medicine
By far the most frequent modality used in skeletal imaging is conventional x-ray imaging.

The more calcium present, the whiter (or denser) that part of the radiograph- the less calcium present, the blacker (or lucent) that part of the radiograph.
When looking at x-ray films of bone many aspects have to be assessed:
The cortical bone (cortex) of long bones is seen as thick homogenous band in the diaphysis with a marked thinning in the metaphysis. The epiphysis is covered by a thin lining of dense bone, the corticalis. The medullary or spongy bone is composed of a regular three-dimensional mesh of trabecular bone. The bone is surrounded by the periosteum, which is not depicted radiographically. The epiphysis has a cartilage cover that is not seen in X-ray imaging rendering the radiographic joint space wider than the anatomic joint space.
In children the radiographic joint space is wider than in adults since the epiphysis contains mostly radiolucent cartilage and only a small central ossification. At the end of the growth period the epiphysis including the physis (epiphysial growth plate) calcifies completely. The physis is sometimes delineated as a fine calcified linear structure.
High resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional images reformations have become standard when assessing trauma cases
3D reconstruction
The role ultrasound sonography in musculoskeletal imaging is limited.

Bone causes total reflection of ultrasound waves; therefore only the bone surface and not the bone structure can be assessed.

The main role of ultrasound, however, is the visualization of ligaments, joint effusion, and periarticular soft tissues.
For example: Rotator cuff tear
Injured rotator cuff
A rotator cuff tear is a tear of one or more of the tendons of the four rotator cuff muscles.
MRI is the currently the most sensitive noninvasive imaging modality to visualize joints, cartilage and ligaments in inflammatory joint disease and trauma. MR imaging has a high soft tissue contrast and can be used to characterize lesions, describe the exact extend of a lesion and depict extraosseous involvement of bone tumors.
The excellent soft tissue contrast allows to delineate articular and periarticular soft tissues, like tendons, menisci, and synovia.
of the musculoskeletal system
Developmental disorders
Metabolic bone diseases
Plasmacytoma is a malignant plasma cell tumor predominantly growing from the red bone marrow.
Lucent bones!!
Ostoenecrosis: a vascular disorder
Joint disorders
Muscle disorders
Muscle rupture
Thank you for your attention!
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