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Acids, Bases, & pH Balances
Transcript of Acids, Bases, & pH Balances
What is a pH Scale?
Common Bases & Acids
Buffers, pH Indicators, etc.
Reading the Scale
pH, standing for the
potential of hydrogen
, is a scale that measures how acidic or basic a substance is. Anything with a pH above 7 is considered basic (or alkaline), anything below 7 is acidic. If a substance has a pH of 7, it is neutral. Pure or spring water will land a 7 on a pH scale.
What are Acids?
Acids are ionic compounds that break apart in water to form a hydrogen ion (H+). They also react with metal to form a hydrogen gas. Several other characteristics of acids are that they are sour, they have the ability the burn your skin, and they turn blue litmus paper red. They will also become less acidic when they are mixed with bases.
What are Bases?
Bases will accept hydrogen ions (H+) from other substances. It will increase the OH- concentration in water & accept OH- ions. Other characteristics are that it has a bitter taste, a slippery feel, and it turns red litmus paper blue. Bases also contain metal oxides or hydroxides, and some, which are soluble in water, will form alkalis, aka soluble bases.
Different Kinds of Acids
We see acids everyday, and we use them on a daily basis. Weaker acids can be consumed, but most stronger acids can be harmful to the body. Some weaker acid examples include:
hydrochloric acid (for digestion), citric acid, lactic acid, salicylic acid, carbonic acid, sulfuric acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid, uric acid, and many more.
What's Healthy For You?
In a nutshell, bases (or Alkaline) are more healthyfor your body, and should be consumed more often. Our blood is a slightly alkaline level of 7.3 (on average), and anything lower or higher can cause destructive enzymes, and oxygen delivery to cells will suffer.
What are Buffers?
They have a highly stable pH. Adding an acid or a base to a buffer will not change its pH. Buffers can be made by mixing weak acids with weak bases. Blood is one example of a buffer found in nature. An ammonium chloride solution is an example of a chemical buffer.
pH indicators help us find out if a substance is either acidic, or basic. Some indicators include Litmus Paper, phenol red, & phenolphthalein. A couple household/natural indicators include baking soda, red cabbage, red onion, vanilla extract, geranium petals, petunia petals, etc. Most of these indicators work by turning red when a substance is acidic, or blue when a substance is basic.
History & pH Concept
The concept of pH was introduced in 1909 by the Danish chemist Søren Sørensen (1868–1939) at the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1909. In the first papers, the notation had the "H" as a subscript to the lowercase "p", as so: pH.
by Lancy Tan