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Krashen's 5 Hypotheses
Transcript of Krashen's 5 Hypotheses
Learning: a conscious process of breaking down information into more manageable chunks resulting in good test scores but bad communication skills.
Acquisition: a mostly subconscious process of recieving understandable messages. (p.35)
There is a natural order to learning language determined by the language being acquired. However, this sequence cannot be taught directly without going against the basic philosophy of language acquisition. It is also very difficult to determine a student's place in the natural order process. (p.36)
Knowing "what sounds right". People who have acquired language also acquire a set of internalized "rules" for correct speech.
Ideally the speaker checks his/her speech to avoid major errors but keeps the focus on meaning. It is easier to monitor writing than speaking when meaning is the focus. (p.37)
Input (and Output)
i + 1 (input plus one level up)
Krashen is a strong advocate for reading and listening just beyond current level.
Van Lier's model also includes meaningful language use. Good output creates good input: the spoken language becomes comprehensible input. (p. 38-39)
Learning in a relaxed, comfortable atmosphere free from anxiety.
Input must reach Chomsky's Language Acquisition Device (LAD): the part of the brain that processes language. The LAD is blocked when the brain has an affective filter in place.(p.39)
Freeman, David E., and Yvonne S. Freeman. "Written and Second Language Acquisition." Essential linguistics: what you need to know to teach reading, ESL, spelling, phonics, and grammar. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004. 35-40. Print.
This Prezi presentation was created by Lisa Merlo Flores
for Kristi Bronkey EDFL 570
February 3, 2014