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Transcript of Rockets
A vehicle, typically cylindrical, containing
liquid or solid propellants
which produce hot gases or ions that are ejected rearward through a
. This creates an
accompanied by an
opposite and equal reaction
force, driving the vehicle forward. Rockets are
, because they are able to operate in outer space.
Newtons' 3 Laws of Motion
1. Objects at rest will
remain at rest
and objects in motion will
remain in motion
in a straight line unless acted upon by an
2. Force equals
mass times acceleration.
3. Every action has an
equal and opposite reaction.
1. Objects at Rest or in Motion
: forces are balanced. The force of
on the rocket balances with that of the
holding it up.
from the rocket unbalances the forces. As a result, the rocket travels
(until it runs out of fuel).
The pressure created inside the rocket produces force (thrust). Mass represents the
of the rocket, including its
The mass of the rocket
during flight. As fuel is rapidly
used and expelled
, the rocket weighs
less and accelerates.
the engine stops firing.
3. Action and Reaction
takes off only
when it expels gas.
: the rocket pushes the gas out of the engine.
: the gas pushes up on the rocket.
The Action (Thrust) has to be
the weight of the rocket for the Reaction (liftoff) to happen.
Inertia is the resistance of an object to change its motion. It is associated with the mass of the object.
Center of Mass
Center of mass is the
, which all of the mass of an object is perfectly
Center of Pressure
Center of pressure is the
where the '
' acting on a rocket are
The CP exists only when
air is flowing past
the moving rocket.
Air resistance causes
Friction always works in the
of the rocket's motion.
Even when a rocket is
descending drag counteracts
the rocket's motion.
Pointed Nose Cone - causes the air to part
Thinner, streamlined fins moved toward the tail end of the rocket.
How can you increase rocket stability?
to the nose cone. This is called
Extend the fins
toward the end of the rocket.
rockets have more
and therefore are more
. (Don't add too much mass!)
Ballast is any mass added to a vehicle to improve stability and increase inertia.
Stability - ballast towards the nose cone will shift the center of mass forward.
Inertia - more ballast increases inertia and will prevent the rocket's path of motion from being prematurely overcome by drag.
Rocket Fin Shapes
Square/Trapezoidal = more stability and more drag
Triangular = less stability and less drag
Trajectory is the
of an object traveling through space.
(Any object thrown or launched has trajectory.)
inital period of thrust; ends when the fuel runs out.
the period of flight when the rocket is not being actively powered; end of boost to ground impact
highest point of trajectory
a rocket that uses
two or more
stages, each of which contains its own
engine or propellant
each stage as it exhausts its fuel, it
lightens the rocket
stages are able to provide
than the stage before.
Each stage can be built
of where the rocket is flying during that stage. (The
stage can be built to withstand the
stage can withstand the
Makes the rocket
There is the potential for
separation or ignition
failure, or stage
First Stage (Stage 0) is associated with liftoff. 2nd and upper stages burn and fall off in order (called staging).