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Idealism

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Alberto Gianera

on 21 March 2015

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Transcript of Idealism

idealism
vs
realism
Realism has historically held a central position in the study of International Relations
Thuchydidles
Machiavelli
Hobbes
Rousseau
Waltz
Morgenthau
Mearsheimer
V sec b.C.
1532
1651
1750
1979
1948
2001
The Peloponnesian War
The Prince
The Leviathan
The state of war
Politics among nations
Theory of international politics
The tragedy of the great powers
S
S
S
statism
self help
survival
states as main actors
difference of power
anarchy as state of nature
human nature is egoist
you can relay only on yourself
Th
ucydides
idealism
Ethics
Morality
Liberal tradition
Classical liberal thought
1600-1700
Idealism
1919-1939
New strands of liberal IR
1900 - 2000
Im
manuel
Ka
nt
Woodrow Wilson
post war realism
new idealism
ideologies
domestic institutions
theory of democratic peace
Outbreak of World War II
Hitler's irrationality
Revolution in the '90s

“What made the war inevitable was the growth of Athenian power and the fear which this caused in Sparta”
“The strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept”
“Athens was driven by fear, interest and honour”
Ba
lance of power
Im
morality
Fo
reign policy
first priority of state leaders
“The republican constitution is the only one wholly compatible with the rights of men”
N
M
S
I
L
A
E
R
O
E
Realism with a scientific touch
but
still a struggle for power
not as result of human nature
(aka structural realism)
what matters is the structure of the system
Mearsheimer
offensive realism
five assumptions
anarchy
offensive capability
uncertainty about other states' intentions
survival as main goal
great powers as rational actors
regional hegemony
maximize the economic strength
Principal goal: survival
nuclear superiority
1
2
3
the best
defense
is a good
offense
John Herz, 1950
Security dilemma theory
bipolarity
balanced multipolarity
Bipolarity stability theory
unbalanced multipolarity
STABILITY
Limits of realism
domestic politics
non states actors
NOT CONSIDERED
values, norms etc
c. 460 – c. 395 BC
"In arming for self-defense a state might decrease its security via the unintended effect of making others insecure, sparking them to arm in response."
International relations explained in terms of power
14 points
US-Canada
relationship
First example
Second example
Flaws of German domestic politics
idealism
Elena Giacomelli
Alberto Gianera
Alice Zorzi

Thank you for your attention
Table of contents
-
Realism - Timeline
- Core elements "triple S"
- Classical realism: Thucydides
-
Idealism - Timeline
- Kant
- Wilson
-
Offensive Realism - Mearsheimer
-
New idealism - Kober



Kober: optimistic view on Soviet bloc transformation

Not grounded in real events
1856 - 1924
Zum ewigen Frieden.
Ein philosophischer Entwurf
Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch
1795
1724 - 1804
Pr
eliminary articles
No secret treaties
No indipendent states under the dominion of another state
Armies shall be totally abolished
National debts cannot be contracted for foreign policy reasons
No state should, during war, do anything that undermine the the trust of other states or makes peace impossible
Perpetual peace
De
finitive articles
2. "The law of nations shall be founded on a federation of free states"
3. "The law of world citizenship shall be limited to conditions of universal hospitality"
1. "The civil constitution of every state should be republican"
Perpetual peace
republican
not
democratic
democratic
peace
theory
representative democracy
legislative power separated by executive
universal suffrage
nothing on
delivered in Joint session, January 8, 1918
Full transcript