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Science Project Multimedia Presentation Mariana Trench

By: Justin B., Pooja B., Noah K., Olivia N.
by

Science Project

on 7 June 2013

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Transcript of Science Project Multimedia Presentation Mariana Trench

Food Chain Food Web Ocean Deep Mariana Trench Here is the Mariana Trench Food Chain Which one is more realistic? Interactions between Organsisms Mutualism Mutualism is the type of relationship between two organisms where each organism benefits from one another. Commensalism Parasitism Parasitism is the form of interactions between organisms where only one organism is benefiting and the other is being harmed. Amoeba Deep Sea Anglerfish Sea Cucumber Shrimp Zooplankton Phytoplankton What is a Food Chain? Basically, a food chain is a representation of the organisms in an ecosystem put into an order based off of which organisms eat which ones. The food chain is a diagram where the levels of consumers are aligned so we can see in what order animals are eaten in. Every food chain starts with a producer and ends with tertiary consumers or decomposers. By: Justin B., Pooja B., Noah K., Olivia N. Here is an example
of a food chain:
(This does NOT pertain
to our ecosystem, this is
just a showpiece) How does the Mariana Trench Food Chain Work? The Mariana Trench Food Chain is just like any other food chain. This chain starts off with a producer, which in this case is the phytoplankton. The phytoplankton makes its own food to make energy for itself. It does this by going through photosynthesis where it uses the sun's heat to make energy. The phytoplankton is the base of the food chain. Every other organism on this chain above the phytoplankton indirectly relies on this organism because without it, every other organism would die out, making the food chain fall apart. Then, the chain goes to the zooplankton which is a primary consumer. The zooplankton feeds on producers like the phytoplankton making it a "primary consumer". After that, the list moves onto the shrimp which is a secondary consumer. Since the zooplankton is the primary consumer, the shrimp is the secondary consumer. Next, we have the sea cucumber which is another form of a secondary consumer, it is just in different line in the chain than the Shrimp. Then, we have the Deepsea Anglerfish. The Deepsea Anglerfish is a tertiary consumer which means it consumes all types of organisms. It will eat anything that comes close enough to it. Lastly, we have the Amoeba. The Amoeba is a decomposer which means that it eats the dead remnants of organisms that have passed away. These organisms don't necessarily have to be on the top of the food chain, they can go anywhere like on the sides of the chain. This is because they will eat anything and it doesn't matter what order they are put in since they consume the remnants of everything. Battle: Food Webs vs. Food Chains Food chains are not accurate representations of interactions that occur amongst organisms. This is because interactions can be flip-flopped. For example, a consumer's prey can eat it's predator, the Microbes can eat dead remnants of the Deep Sea Anglerfish. Or a Snailfish can attempt to consume a baby Anglerfish. Prey can consume its predators as well as its predators can eat the prey. However, that all depends on the conditions of the organism like: if the organism is alive or not and what size is the organism? As you can see, all of these factors make quite a big difference in the way we look at organism interactions. Also, these show that the chain does not portray all the combinations of interactions that could occur between predator and prey because of the size and the state of being of the organism is not taken into consideration. This is why the food chain is not as accurate as a food web when it comes to displaying organism interactions. V.S. V.S Anglerfish Microbes Baby Anglerfish Snailfish Commensalism is the type of interaction between organisms where only one organism benefits, but the other does not get harmed nor benefitted. Examples of Parasitism in the Mariana Trench:
-Argulus and Salmonoids
-Gnathiidae and Deepsea Anglerfish
-Pea Crabs and Oysters Examples of Commensalism in the Mariana Trench:
-Rimicaris Exoculata and Epibionts
-Imperial Shrimp and Large Sea Cucumbers Here is the Mariana Trench Food Web Sea Cucumber Sea Anenome Snailfish What is a Food Web? A food web is just like a food chain because it represents the way animals in one ecosystem eat each other. However, the main difference is that this representation shows all of the possible interactions that could occur between organisms. This means that it shows interactions where the prey could consume its predator and etc. In this diagram, the sizes of the organisms and the state of being of the organism is taken into consideration when the web is being made. Here is an example of
a food web. (This does
NOT pertain to our
ecosystem, this is just a
showpiece) How does the Mariana Trench Food Web work? Just like the food chain, the energy all starts from the producers. The producers here are the Phytoplankton, the Algae, the Diatom and the Barophilic Bacteria. All of these organisms make their own food. The Shrimp, the Zooplankton, and the Sea Cucumbers eat the Phytoplankton. Then, the Sea Cucumber eats the Algae. Then, we have the primary consumers. In this line, we have the Zooplankton, Worms, and the Hirondellea Gigas. Not all of these organisms eat the producers, but we know that this line of organisms contains the predators of the producers. To begin, the Shrimp eats the Zooplankton. Then, the Snailfish and the Shrimp eat the worms. The Worms eat sand and the Hirondellea Gigas eat wood that falls from the surface of the ocean. After that, we have the line of secondary consumers. Here we have the Shrimp and the Decapod. These are the secondary consumers because they feed on the primary consumers and they are the second consumers in the line that this diagram has formed. The Decapod eat all types of small crustaceans. The Snailfish eats the Deacpod and the Sea Anenome eats the Shrimp. Next, we have the second line of secondary consumers. Here, we have the Sea Cucumber, the Sea Anenome and the Snailfish. These organisms like the Shrimp and the Decapod are another form of secondary consumers. The Snailfish feed on the Amphipods which are the decomposers which are at the top of the diagram. Again, secondary consumers are "secondary" because they come second in line when it comes to consuming. Then, we have the Deepsea Anglerfish and the Scaly Dragonfish. These organisms make up the line of tertiary consumers. These are the predators that eat everything on the diagram and not many other organisms besides the decomposers bother to consume these hunters. Since they have no predators, they are called tertiary because no organism preys on it. Lastly, we have the decomposers. The decomposers are the organisms that are the "cleaners" of this ecosystem. After an animal dies, these critters clean up the remnants by feeding on it. Basically, they recycle the trash of the ecosystem. In this ecosystem, the decomposers are the Amoeba, the Amphipods and the Microbes. These organisms feed on everything on this list. Closeup of the Mariana Trench Food Web Phytoplankton Algae Diatom Barophilic Bacteria Here is a close-up of the Mariana Trench food web: Microbes Amphipods Amoeba Deep Sea Anglerfish Scaly Dragonfish Sea Cucumber Sea Anenome Snailfish Shrimp Decapod Worms Zooplankton Hirondellea Gigas Closeup of the Mariana Trench Food Chain Here is a close up of the Mariana Trench Food Chain: Amoeba Deepsea Anglerfish Sea Cucumber Shrimp Zooplankton Phytoplankton Chain Web The shrimp rides on the sea cucumber. This provides a way for the shrimp to travel to bigger areas of the ocean and have more food sources and use less energy. The sea cucumber is not harmed by this action and the shrimp gets benefited because it does not have to use much energy. The Argulus attatches itself to the fish and pierces the flesh with its stinger mouthparts that sucks the salmoind's blood. This can be fatal to smaller fish, but as Hatchetfish are somewhat big, it leaves areas of the fish red and inflamed, which could lead to infections. Gnathiidae and Deep Sea Anglerfish- The gnathiidae attatches itself onto its host, which is really any fish at all, but to narrow it down we'll say Deep Sea Anglerfish. Then, they suck the blood to feed. This is harming one fish but benefiting the other because one is getting food while the other is getting injured. Sea Anemone and Boxer Crabs Examples of Mutualism in the Mariana Trench: Deep Sea Anglerfish and Bioluminicent Bacteria Single Celled Algae and Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Both of the organisms trade carbon and nitrogen in a mutual relationship. This benefits both organisms and helps fertilize the oceans. The Deep Sea Anglerfish uses the bioluminicent bacteria to create a "light" on the top of its head. That attracts prey. By living atop the fish's head, the bioluminicent bacteria has a nutrient-rich environment for it to grow. This benefits both organisms because both receive energy in different forms to help them grow (the Anglerfish receives food and the bacteria gets nutrients) The boxer crab carries the anemone on its front legs. This helps to chase away attackers. In return, the anemone receives the crab's leftover food. This reationship shows mutualism because both organisms are benefiting through this relationship. The Rimicaris Exoculata hosts the Epibionts in its gill chamber. The epibionts are not harmed, and they are able to provide a lot of energy for the Rimicaris Exoculata. Deep Sea Anglerfish and Bioluminicent Bacteria: The Single-Cell Algae and Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Sea Anemone and Boxer Crabs Single-Celled Algae Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Sea Anemone Boxer Crab Deepsea Anglerfish Imperial Shrimp and Large Sea Cucumbers Rimicaris Exoculata and Epibionts Bioluminescent
Bacteria Rimicaris Exoculata Epibionts Argulus and Hatchetfish Gnathiidae and Deep Sea Anglerfish Gnatiidae Deep Sea Anglerfish Argulus Hatchetfish Here is a video
on their relationship. Here, you can see the sea anemone attached to its front legs. And the Winner for the most realistic is... Food Webs win the Food Webs vs. Food Chain battle for its more realistic representation!!! Thank you for Watching!! Pea Crabs and Oysters The pea crab lives inside the oyster, and usually damages it during the time that it lives there.It does this by eating food gathered on mucous strands inside it, which harms the mantle and gills of the oyster. Pea Crab Imperial Shrimp Large Sea Cucumber Oysters Predator Prey Sea Snail: The Sea Snail feeds on Amphipods and Decapods. Predator: Sea Snail
Prey: Amphipods, Decpaods Predator-prey is basically a relationship that describes the interactions between an organism and what it eats. It's basically like the hunter and its food. Dragonfish: The Dragonfish eats any organism that ventures too close.
Predator: Dragonfish
Prey: Organisms that venture too close Zooplankton: The Zooplankton feeds on Phytoplankton.
Predator: Zooplankton
Prey: Phytoplankton Hirondellea Giga: The Hirondellea Giga eats wood.
Preadtor: Hirondellea Giga
Prey: Wood Sea Snail-Amphipods, Decapods Sea Snail Amphipod Decapod Zooplankton-Phytoplankton Zooplankton Phytoplankton Dragonfish-Any organism Dragonfish Organisms Hirondellea Giga-Wood Hirondellea Giga Wood
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