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Soil Erosion

Mary Beth Zahnleuter, Dakota Rainville, Meghna Dash
by

Meghna Dash

on 14 May 2012

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Transcript of Soil Erosion

Soil Erosion
Intro

Conservation of Soil Erosion...
Correlates with Rain Forests

Rates of Soil Erosion
Soil Erosion
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
(cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
Why are soils important?
What is the big problem with soils
in the modern era?
What is the problem with sediment deposition?
In the past, soil eroded more slowly than it does today because more land was covered with vegetation. However, human activities that remove greenery has accelerated erosion.
Strip Cropping
Before
After
They provide nutrients
and minerals to plants.
It provides houses for
multiple species. It also
holds and stores water
in lakes and reservoirs.
They are being ruined and polluted faster
and more often today due to our machines,
fuel choices, and many other factors.
TERRACING
The deposited sediment that is deposited clogs irrigation systems, pipes, and streams. It can also pollute water.
Terracing is...
the breaking of a hill into a series of step like structures long benches)
coming up from the benches are railings to slow the water flow
different ways depend on climate and soil type
:3
Rate Depends On:
Contour Plowing
Plowing rows in curves to preserve soil and slow water flow, rain water won't wash land sediment away because of it.
Crop Rotation
swap which crops you grow in the field in a cyclic manor to keep diseases away and keep the land diverse
Soil:
Climate:
Slope:
Vegetation:
The texture, structure, and cohesion of the soil is a factor that affects erosion rates.
Windbreaks
planting rows of trees in between crops to reduce the wind's speed from accelerating across the crops
Length, steepness, and roughness affects erosion rates, as shown in the diagram. The steeper the slope, the faster the rate is.
Cover plants
usually in Pacific Islands
planting of small grasses or grains to protect and improve soil after the cash crops are harvested
planting thick strips of crops equidistant apart to reduce soil erosion from wind/water
Rainfall amount, intensity, and frequency causes increases or decreases in the rate. For example, if the climate is too dry, the soil can be blown away. If it is too wet, mudslides occur.
The denser or stronger the coverage of vegetation, the less erosion occurs. The lighter the vegetation, the faster the rate of erosion is.
if protecting from wind, plant rows perpendicular to wind direction
Dakota:
Meghna:
Mary Beth:
Citations
What was the
Dust Bowl?
The Dust Bowl was an example of wind erosion from the 1930's. During the prolonged drought of the time, strong winds removed large quantities of dry soil from unprotected fields. This resulted in the loss of good agricultural soil, and was partially the reason behind the Great Depression.



















AUTHORS:. "SHELTERBELTS AND WINDBREAKS: Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulations of Turbulent Flows - Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 33(1):549 ." An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2012. <http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.fluid.33.1.549?journalCode=fluid>.

Carman, Dennis . "Strip Cropping." Strip Cropping. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2012. <http://www.sera17.ext.vt.edu/Documents/BMP_strip_cropping.pdf>.

"Contour Plowing & Terraces during the 1930s Depression." Wessels Living History Farm, Inc.. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2012. <http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/crops_11.html>.

NRCS. "What are Cover Crops and Conservation Covers." Cover Crops and Conservation Covers for Better Harvests. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2012. <www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/wq/publications/Final_FactSheets/CoverCrop340_ConservationCover327.pdf>.


NRCS/USDA. "Conservation Crop Rotation." Conservation Crop Rotation. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2012. <http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/JobSheet/ConservationCropRotationsjs.pdf>.

" Terracing - Modern Practices, Worldwide Methods - Terrace, Bench, Broadbase, and Steep - JRank Articles ." Science Encyclopedia - JRank Articles . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2012. <http://science.jrank.org/pages/6770/Terracing.html>.
What is Happening in the Rainforests?
1. In the rainforests, there is a very specific pattern that happens when major soil erosion occurs.
2. The run – off carries the soil into nearby rivers or streams
3. The sediment then flows downstream
4. This can cause major hydroelectric problems and damage to irrigation systems. This process of depositing soil is called siltation.
5. More damage: raised river beds, increasing chance for floods. If a big river, navigation becomes harder because of sandbars.
6. The flow of sediment kills fish eggs, demolishes them, decreasing hatch rates.
7. As the sediment reaches the ocean, water clouds, coral reef decline, effecting local fisheries more from the loss of fish to catch
8. Loss of reefs devastates everything, they provide housing for fish, and much more diversity
9. Deforestation erosion also destroys the infrastructure of roads…
Causing money to be spent to fix the damage
Holt, Rinehart. Holt science & technology earth science.
Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2001. Print.

http://stjoecountycd.com/soilerosion.aspx
"Broken Arrow." Tulsa Hot Tub Rentals. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 May 2012. <http://hottubrentalstulsa.com/>. (tags:none | edit tags)

"Effect Of Topography." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2012. <www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/19386/Effect-of-topography-and-climate-on-water-induced-soil-erosion>. (tags:none | edit tags)

"Effect of Topography." Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2012. <www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/19386/Effect-of-topography-and-climate-on-water-induced-soil-erosion>. (tags:none | edit tags)

"Soil Erosion." Agri-Science Resources. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 May 2012. <www.envirothon.org/pdf/CG/using_the_USLE.pdf>. (tags:none | edit tags)
Here is video
(with some cheesy music)
to give you a visual
Full transcript