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Study Skills and Strategies
Transcript of Study Skills and Strategies
Preparing for a Test
Taking The Test
After the Test
Study Skills and Strategies
Five Steps to Effective Textbook Reading
Caring for Infants and Toddlers (Refer to p. 400, second paragraph)
Writers often organize information or supporting details into patterns. These patterns often lead to the main idea. There are essentially five main writing patterns.
LISTING OF FACTS
COMPARISON AND CONTRAST
CAUSE AND EFFECT
PROBLEM AND SOLUTION
Hints for Answering Essay Questions
Read the directions carefully
Read the question carefully
Organize the information (using a graphic organizer)
Have an introduction-Beginning
Provide key information-Middle
Have a conclusion-Ending
Proofread your essay to make sure it is clear and legible
IF you are running out of time, try to jot down key ideas of what you would talk about next
Write something, even if you haven't a clue about the essay because the instructor may give partial credit
Test anxiety is anxiety that result prior to taking a test that may exhibit itself in the form of physical symptoms (nausea, sweating, chills, headaches, feeling "lightheaded," etc.) or emotional symptoms (nervousness, extreme laughing, crying, anger, frustration, and feeling helpless).
Thank you for attending Study Skills and Strategies Training!
STEP 1: Overview the Textbook
Look at Front Matter
Table of Contents-shows text organization
Preface-indicates type of learning aids:
Look at Back Matter
Index-gives page numbers for specific info
Glossary-gives definitions of key words
Appendix-adds information, with graphic aids
STEP 4: Turn Outline Headings Into Questions and Read for Answers
Don’t formulate “yes/no” questions
Use a variety of question types (what, when, where, why, how, in what ways, describe)
Try to make up some simple recall questions, as well as higher-order thinking questions
After creating questions, scan to find the answers
Look for main ideas
Note definitions and examples
Use questions in the chapters if provided
STEP 2: Preview each chapter BEFORE reading
Helps you activate prior knowledge
Allows you to predict information
Helps you associate new info with the old
Assistance with Numerous Tasks:
Tells what the topic is about
Shows the organization of the chapter
Shows what learning aids are available
Allows you to estimate how long it will take to read
STEP 5: Recite and Review Question/Answers Continuously
It is important to continually read over textbook notes
Recite aloud to better remember information
Review Skimming/Scanning & SQ3R Handout with Caring for Infants and Toddlers p. 392 Ch. 13 Professionalism
Step 3: Construct a BROAD
outline using headings
Helps see connections between headings
Provides more clear organization
Begin with the chapter title as the title
Slightly indent major headings (usually denoted in bold, large, distinct print)
Further indent minor headings under their respective major headings
Leave space between the major headings
The subject of the paragraph
It answers the question, "what or who is this paragraph about?"
It can be stated in one word, or as a short phrase
Finding the topic should occur FIRST in trying to better understand the paragraph, article, or chapter
It is the overall general message/sums up the paragraph
It answers the question, "What does the author want me to know about the information in this paragraph?"
It must be expressed as a complete sentence
Finding the main idea should come after identifying the topic of the paragraph
The sentence that contains the main idea is referred to as the topic sentence
Unstated main ideas require you to make inferences
Major supporting details:
Answers the question, "What details directly support the main idea?"
Often seen as examples, reasons, lists, etc.
Minor supporting details:
Answers the question, "What details directly support the major supporting details?"
Supplies additional info
DO NOT HAVE TO BE INCLUDED
There are several words that signal listing of facts:
Also or in addition
Another or other
Examples, factors, types
Several or many
Finally or last
First, second, third or 1, 2, 3
Somewhat of a list of major details including characteristics, examples, reasons, etc.
Listing of facts can take many forms, such as numbered over more than one paragraph or unnumbered
In most forms, the listing of facts directly follows the main idea
Listing of Facts
Involves details, events, directions, or steps that are presented in a specific order of time, whether dated or undated
The order of time makes a difference here, though in listing of facts, the order of listed items is unimportant
Comparing involves looking at how two or more things are SIMILAR
Contrasting involves looking at how two or more things are DIFFERENT
Paragraphs can compare, contrast, or compare and contrast ideas, events, objects, etc.
Cause and effect involves stating the reasons as well as the results
The cause may be stated before the effect and vice versa
Cause and Effect
This is similar to cause and effect
Describes questions or problems that have been answered or resolved (usually science)
Look for problem to be solved, experience done, how the problem was answered, and the outcome
Caring for Infants and Toddlers
(Refer to p. 409-410)
Caring for Infants and Toddlers
(Refer to p. 404-405)
There are several words that signal chronological order:
after, during, or before
first or last
There are several words that signal compare and contrast:
Compare: alike, common, compare, like, likeness, same, similiar
Contrast: contrast, debate, disagree, on the other hand, unlike, whereas, distinction, distinguish
Both: between, whereas
There are several words that signal cause and effect:
10 Proofreading Reminders
1. Underline book titles. Put quotation marks around poems, finger play songs, and music titles.
3. When do you use “me,” and when do you use “I”?
Use “I” when you’re the subject of a sentence. Use “me” when you’re an object—meaning, if someone is giving or doing something to you or with you. All you have to do is leave out the second object.
10. Fewer vs. less
"Fewer" is used when describing countable things.
"Less" is used when describing more abstract amounts — amounts that can't be measured exactly but can be compared.
2. "Hisself" is not a word. Correct spelling is "himself" or "he." "A lot" is two words.
4. Too, two, or to
"Too" can be replaced with "also" or "overly." "Too" can also signal beyond a proper limit.
"Two" is used for counting.
"To" is a preposition used in front of a noun or pronoun in front of a verb in the present tense.
9. Most common use of commas:
Needed when two sentences are joined by a connecting word.
Needed when an introductory phrase is connected to a complete sentence.
Needed when there is a list in sentence form.
5. Good versus Well and Bad versus Badly
Good and bad are adjectives which modify nouns. Well and badly are adverb and should never modify nouns. However, when you are talking about the five senses, you should use the adjective instead of the adverb.
6. Your vs. you’re
“Your” is a possessive pronoun, as in “your car” or “your blog.”
“You’re” is a contraction for “you are,” as in “You’re being unprofessional when you write ‘your’ when you really need ‘you are.’”
7. It’s vs. Its
“It’s” is a contraction of “it is” or “it has.”
“Its” is a possessive pronoun, as in “This blog has not lost its magic.”
Repeat your sentence out loud using “it is” instead of “ it’s.” Example: This blog has not lost it is magic. If that sounds goofy, “its” is likely the correct choice.
8. There, their, or they’re
“There” is used as a reference to a place (“Let’s go there.”) or as a pronoun (“There is lots of hope.”).
“Their” is a plural possessive pronoun, as in “their bags” or “their shoes and socks.”
“They’re” is a contraction for “they are.” Example: They’re going to be a great class by the end of the week. Sub the words “They” and “are” to see if it’s right.
Organize your study and review
Organize your time
Study with others
Inquire about the test
Identify what to study
Connect and synthesize information
Learning and memorizing
Be mentally prepared
Gather necessary materials to bring
Arrive a few minutes early
Find a good seat
Receiving the test
Read the directions first
Preview the entire test
Plan your time wisely
Read the questions carefully
Review the test before turning it in
Check the front/back to make sure no sections were missed
Go back and complete skipped items
Make sure your handwriting is legible
Read over questions and answers
*DO NOT CHANGE ANSWERS unless you are 100% sure that you marked the answer incorrect initially
Getting your test back
Find out why answers are wrong
Keep your test for later review if possible
Managing Test Anxiety
Why is test anxiety a problem?
You may forget the information that you studied
Information may start to run together
You may experience "scattered thoughts" that have little or no organization
All information may surface at once and you can't control these thoughts
How do you control test anxiety?
Prior to the test:
Study thoroughly for the test using spaced study strategies that best meet your own learning styles
Get plenty of rest the night before the exam but set the alarm clock to avoid oversleeping
Follow your normal routine the day of the exam to the greatest extent possible
Eat a well-balanced meal, and try to avoid caffeine and a large amount of sugar
Be prepared and bring the necessary materials: pen, pencil, highlighter, paper, calculator, etc.
Get to the exam a few minutes early to relax
Sit near the front so others won't distract you during the test
Avoid talking to other students about the test
Be positive and reassure yourself that "you have studied well and that you can do this!"
How do you control test anxiety?
During the test:
Read and follow the directions carefully
Decide on how much time needs to be spend on each question and pace yourself
Answer the easy question first to lower your anxiety level
Take a 30 second break between sections
If you feel yourself getting anxious, close your eyes and take deep breaths
Remember: Some anxiety is good, because it can actually improve performance!