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Rice Growing in Malaysia

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Nadine Kauley

on 20 June 2011

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Transcript of Rice Growing in Malaysia

Rice Growing in Malaysia The world. N N Malaya - 300 500 hectares dedicated to rice production Malaysia (Northern Borneo) - 190 000 hectares dedicated to rice production Rice Statistics Rice is the predominant food consumed in Malaysia, 99.9kg of rice consumed by each Malaysian in 2005, even though the grain accounts for only 3% of the nation's agricultural output. Climate of Rice Growing Areas Malaysia's climate, despite the easily varying rainfall and temperature, is suitable for the cultivation of rice all year round:

Tropical/Equatorial
Hot and humid throughout the year
Malaysian Peninsula directly affected by northerly winds from the Asian mainland The El Nino effect is the primary cause of Malaysia's distinct dry and wet seasons
The North-east monsoon season (Malaysian Peninsula) is from November-March
The South-west monsoon season (Borneo) is from May to September Traditional Malaysian Rice Dishes Nasi Goreng (Fried Rice) Nasi Kerabu (Rice with wild herbs and spices, grated coconut and dried fish or prawns) Methods of Rice Production in Malaysia Hill Rice Farming: The traditional cultivation of rice in Malaysia is performed by the planting of rice crops on small hills as the land suitable for growing wet rice is often scarce. A farming family may clear 1-2 hectares of forested land to make way for a field on which to grow the rice by first removing the trees from the area by cutting them down. The forest area is then dried and burned, the resulting ashes kept for the growth stage as they are an important source of nutrients for the rice plants. This method is adopted in Malaysia's smaller villages, such as in the Bundu village of Sabah in East Malaysia (Borneo). Rice-fish Paddy Farming: Rice in Malaysia is often grown in a paddy field (in deep water to prevent the growth and spread of weeds; rice plants being quite tolerant to large amounts of water) along with fish for breeding. Integrating the two products increases a farmer's rice yield by 10-15% as they are a source of protein, increasing the quality of the plants, as well as being able to reduce some weeds, insects, snails and some rice diseases. This is also a cheap alternative to other methods as a farmer's income is not concentrated on the purchase of expensive pesticides and herbicides. Prior to planting, Malaysian farmers prepare their rice fields by ploughing them once or twice using a tractor, power tiller or manually. If the 'paddy field' method is adopted, the land will be levelled to ensure the water that has flooded the field remains at the same level in relation to all of the rice plants. The Harvesting of Rice in Malaysia 2-5 months following the planting of rice seeds begins the harvest season. The plants are predominantly removed from the soil by hand, individually, by workers in the fields (usually female in Malaysia). The grains are then loosened by their stalks through threshing, a process by which each plant is struck against a hard surface, such as a rock. They are then sun dried, or sent to a dryer prior to the markets. Rice Culture in Malaysia Traditionally, rice in Malaysia was considered to be animated by a soul, the god given the attributes the Malaysian people were often associated with, including sensitivity and being easily offended by hasty judgements or unkind words. Every year during the harvesting season the Malaysian people thank this god for his generosity through the performance of rituals, dances and other celebrations. One is the Kadazan Harvest Festival, locally known as Tau ka'amatan, celebrated by the Kadazan people of the Sabah precinct in East Malaysia (Borneo). Each May festivities are held here, involving villagers in their traditional costume taking part in cultural activities and games while enjoying what is known as tapai, an alcoholic drink made from rice wine. the growth of weeds
rice insects
major diseases that can evolve as a result of rice growing, such as blast, rice tungro virus and sheath blight
a shortage of labour on Malaysian rice farms
the salinity concentrations of water in lower-lying areas
high production costs Constraints Preventing the Sustainable Production of Rice in Malaysia
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