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States of Conciousness

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SMSGL Psych

on 2 October 2013

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Transcript of States of Conciousness

States of Consciousness
Dreaming
Hypnosis
"A state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion."
Psychoactive Drugs
Psychoactive drugs alter thinking, perception, and memory.
The Steps to Hypnotism
Focuses attention on what the hypnotist says
The person is told to "relax and feel tired."
Tells person to let go and accept suggestions easily
Told to use vivid imagination
How does it Work?
The Subjects
(Alert and active) People must be willing
Susceptible to suggestion
Vivid imaginations
Daydreamers
The Procedure
Subject is the hypnotist
Subject is in control
Does not manipulate freewill
Hypnotist is the guide
Why Does it Work?
Dissociation
The conscious mind
The hidden part of the mind
Social Role-Playing
social-cognitive theory of hypnosis
People play a role
Unaware they are role-playing
A performance
How we use it
Breaking bad habits
Overcoming insomnia
Recalling forgotten experiences
Anesthetic for managing pain
Phobias
Self-esteem issues and motivation
Memories

The Myths of Hypnosis
You can be hypnotized against your will
I have never been in a state of hypnosis
Your mind is too strong to be hypnotized
The History of Hypnosis
Hypnos (Greek)- Sleep
Franz Anton Mesmer
Introduced hypnotic techniques in the 1700s
Considered a fraud
Techniques were "unscientific"
Milton H. Erickson
Brought back hypnotherapy in the 1900's
1958- Hypnotherapy was recognized as a valid medical procedure
Works Cited
http://www.historyofhypnosis.org/
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/think-well/201301/the-truth-about-hypnosis
http://psychoresearches.blogspot.com/2008/06/hypnosis-myths-and-facts.html
http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/treatment/hypnotherapy
http://www.nchypnosis.org/what-is-hypnosis#hypnosis
Psychoactive drugs are developed to help with or aid in areas such as:
Sedation for surgeries
Pain of injuries or diseases
Treatment of sleep disorders
Attention deficits in children
These drugs have been proven extremely instrumental in the medical field. However, they should always be taken udder the diagnosis and care of a qualified medical professional. Without medical control these psychoactive drugs can pose serious danger and lead to:
• Sever health problems
• Physical dependence
• Psychological dependence
• Death


Physical Dependence
A condition occurring when a person’s body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug
.

Dependence will cause a user to crave the particular drug. In most cases this will lead to drug tolerance where the dosage of a drug must be continually up to achieve the same high.
• Headaches
• Nausea
• Irritability
• Sever pain
• Cramping
• Shacking
• Dangerously high blood pressure

When someone becomes physically dependent on a drug and the drug is removed from the user they will go through a proses called withdraw. Withdraw can cause symptoms including:

A state in which there is a compulsive or chronic feeling of need, for a drug to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well being.

The body does not become dependent on these drugs but the psyche craves it for the rewarding feeling. The rewarding properties of these drugs cause it to be a positive reinforcement. Because there is no withdraw to go through psychological dependencies can last forever. Any drug, even if it causes a physical dependence, can cause a psychological dependency.
Psychological Dependence
Drug Categories
Psychoactive drugs fall into 4 main groups: Stimulants, Depressants, Narcotics, and Hallucinogens.
Stimulants
http://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/stimulants
http://www.aboutdrugs.us/stimulants.htm
http://www.timberlineknolls.com/drug-addiction/cocaine/signs-effects

Are stimulants that are synthesized in laboratories rather than being found in nature.
They can be found over the counter in drugs to prevent sleepiness, help attention deficit disorders, and prompt wait loss.
However Amphetamines are often abused in recreational use. The most Commonly abused Amphetamines include Speed and Crystal Meth.
Are a class of drugs that elevate mood, increase feelings of well-being, and increase energy and alertness, by speeding up the function of the nervous system
Amphetamines
Common non-Amphetamines Stimulants
Cocaine- is found in coca plat leaves and has been classified by the federal government as a high abuse, high dependency risk stimulant. Cocaine produces euphoric effects by increasing the release of dopamine in the brain and by stopping the normal release of the drug back into the brain.
Nicotine- is the main drug in all forms of tobacco. Nicotine is one of the most heavily used and most addictive drugs in the U.S. It works by raising blood pressure, speeding up the heart, and rushing sugar into the blood stream.
http://www.aboutdrugs.us/stimulants.htm
http://www.timberlineknolls.com/drug-addiction/cocaine/signs-effects
http://www.abovetheinfluence.com/facts/drugstobacco
http://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/stimulants
Depressants
These psychoactive drugs slow the central nervous system down, making them the opposite of stimulants
These drugs have a sedative effect ranging from sleepiness to coma. Major Tranquilizers have a strong depressant effect.
Benzodiazepines / Minor Tranquilizers
Barbiturates / Major Tranquilizers
these drugs have mild depressant effects and are used to lower anxiety and reused stress. A common minor Tranquilizer is Rohypnol (Roofies)which intensify the effects of alcohol and other drugs such as heroine and cocaine and is used as a date rate drug. it can leave victims unaware of actions.
http://rohypnolabusetreatment.com/rohypnol-street-names
Narcotics
Hallucinogens
By: Schyler, Matthew, Lizeth, and Stephanie
A class of drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulation the nervous systems natural receptor sites for endorphins, the neurotransmitters that naturally deaden pain.
All narcotics come derived a plant based substance known as opium.
Morphine: created by dissolving opium in acid is still used today as a pain reliever by medical physicians but is carefully controlled as it is addictive and abused drug giving feelings of euphoria and relaxation. when mixed with a depressant this drug can become extremely deadly.
Heroin: created as a replacement for morphine, that did not have side effect that morphine had, was soon removed from the medical field and deemed to have no place there. Heroin is 2-3 times more powerful than opium because of its purity and is extremely addictive and is classified as a schedule 1 drug.
Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Schedule I drugs are the most dangerous drugs of all the drug schedules with potentially severe psychological or physical dependence.
http://www.justice.gov/dea/druginfo/ds.shtml
http://www.drugs.com/opium.html

Are drugs that cause the brain to alter its interpretation of sensations and can produce sensory distortion in which sensations cross over each other... colors have sound, sounds have smell...
Hallucinogens can be synthesized or found in nature.
Three of the most common synthesized drugs are LSD, PCP, and MDMA
These hallucinogens can cause hallucinations known as trips, distorted sensations, and can lead to violence and suicide. PCP can also be a stimulant, depressant, or a analgesic drug depending on the dosage. Memories of trips can come back produce feelings and thoughts that replay the effects of being on the drug. Users can also experience long-lasting psychoses (a complete loss of contact with reality) or severe depression.
Three most common natural hallucinogens are Mescaline, Psilocybin, and Marijuana
Mescaline: Is derived from the peyote cactus buttons and can have hallucinogen effects out lasting LSD. Mescaline is commonly associated with native american rituals
Psilocybin: Is found in certain mushrooms and is also associated with native american rituals. Psilocybin has been linked to HppD.
http://www.abovetheinfluence.com/facts/drugslsd
Mar
uaj
nai:

Is one of the most commonly abused hallucinogens. it comes from hemp plats leaves and flowers. This drug is best known to produce feelings of euphoria, relaxation, mild intoxication, and sensory distortion including altered time sense and visual distortion. higher doses can lead to hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. Common health problems with Marijuana use are: lowered motivation, anxiety, panic attacks, respiratory illnesses, increased heart rate, and risk of heart attack
https://www.caron.org/knowledge-library/addiction-glossary/marijuana?WT_mc_id=GrantsPPC&gclid=CJKonKvw5bkCFS_ZQgod7jIA6g
Hypnotherapy
Suggestion Hypnotherapy
Suggestions to the subconscious
No root cause
Short Term Therapy
Analytical Hypnotherapy (hypnoanalysis)
Deeper issues
Involved
Aims to resolve problem
Cognitive Hypnotherapy
Enter the mindset of the patient
Can use analytical approach
Make sure changes are fully realized
Sleep- Altered State
1. Why is Sleep an Altered State of Consciousness?
2. Importance of Sleep
3. Who controls our Sleep?
4. Sleep Theories
5. Stages of Sleep
6. Sleep Disorders
1. Why is Sleep an Altered State of Consciousness
While sleeping:
2. Importance of Sleep
5. Stages of Sleep

There are two kinds of sleep stages:

REM and Non- REM

I. REM ( Rapid eye movement, dreams take place, person moves very little)

II. Non-REM ( Sleep is deeper and restful and the body is free to move)
3. Who controls our Sleep
Sleep is controlled by the brain specifically by an area within the hypothalamus called suprachiasmatic, where melatonin is released and is the internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep
Experiments have proven that people that don't have enough sleep:
Have reduced abilities to function mentally and physically
Have concentration problems
Inability to perform simple tasks
General discomfort
Nightmares
Children tend to have more nightmares because they spend more of their sleep in the REM state
5. Stages of Sleep
Non- REM is divided into 4 stages:

1) Non-Rem Stage 1: Light sleep( They experiment hallucinations, ghostly visits and alien abductions)

2) Non- Rem Stage 2: (Body temperature drop, heart rate slows,breathing becomes more shallow)

3) Non-Rem Stage 3 and 4: (Deep sleep very hard to awaken. Body growth occurs)
Insomnia
.
D. Sleep Apnea
Person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more
When the breathing stops there will be a sudden silence, followed by gasping
Apnea disturbs might sleep, making the person excessively sleepy in the daytime, but also it can cause heart problems
Person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more
When the breathing stops there will be a sudden silence, followed by gasping
Apnea disturbs night sleep, making the person excessively sleepy in the daytime, but also it can cause heart problems.
E. Night Terrors

More likely in children and also likely to disappear as the child grow older
Is a panic experience, people scream, and run around the room
People feel unable to breathe in this state
Most people do not remember what happened the terror episode, although a few people can remember vividly the images and terror experience
REM Behavior Disorders
4. Sleep Theories

ADAPTIVE THEORY

Humans an animals involved in sleep patterns to avoid being present during their predators hunting times
RESTORATIVE THEORY

Sleep is a biological rhythm,natural cycles of activity that the body must go through
Chemicals used during the day's activities are replenished and cellular damage is repaired
HOW MUCH SLEEP DO PEOPLE NEED?

A young adult between 7 to 9 hours
Short sleepers 4 to 5 hours
Older people around 6 hours
A.
B.
Some people have REM behavior disorder, usually seen in in men over 60, the brain mechanism inhibit the voluntary muscles fail. Allowing this person to get up and act out nightmares
C.
Inability to get to sleep
Some causes: Caffeine, indigestion, medication for pain and dealing with anxieties in the day time.
Helpful hint: Go to bed only when you are sleepy, don't do anything in your bed but sleep, don't try too hard to get to sleep, keep a regular schedule
6. Sleep Disorders
A. Nightmares
B. Rem Behavior Disorders
C. Insomnia
D. Sleep Apnea
E. Night Terrors
F. Narcolepsy
D. Sleep Apnea
F. Narcolepsy
Disorder affecting 1 in every 2,000 persons. Kind of "Sleep seizure"
A person may sleep suddenly into REM sleep during the day
May occur many times and without warning, making them very dangerous if they have to drive a car
There is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity
Thoughts may become fuzzy and disorganized
Thoughts sensations, feelings are not under our control
People spend 1/3 of their life sleeping
Rapid Eye Movement

Taking measures to dream better can really pay off. Some simple steps to dream better are

1. Get enough sleep, and a consistent sleep routine

2. Intend to remember a dream/have a goal

3.Recognize dream activity

4. Dream diary

The more you do it, the better it works!!

According to Freud…
Manifest Content- literally what is happening in the dream.

Latent Content- looking at possible deeper meanings of the dream.

Webster's Dictionary defines dreams as
“a sequence of sensations, images, thoughts etc.., passing through a persons mind”

According to many different experts, dreams can mean several different things, the same dream could mean 100 different things to 100 different people, or even 100 different things to the same person.

Dream dictionary's

Books on interpretation


Variation in Dreams

How to Dream better

Taking measures to dream better can really pay off. Some simple steps to dream better are

1. Get enough sleep, and a consistent sleep routine

2. Intend to remember a dream/have a goal

3.Recognize dream activity

4. Dream diary

The more you do it, the better it works!!

Types of Dreams

False awakening Dreams

Recurring Dreams

Nightmares


Signal dreams


Daydreams



Brain Activity is highly increased

Eyes Move rapidly back and fourth

Most intense state of dreaming happens here

Body is somewhat paralyzed “ Transient Paralysis”

External sounds are suppressed, may be incorporated
into the dream

Rapid Eye Movement

Sigmund Freud was the first to propose the idea that dreams are
Meaningful, wrote “The Interpretation of Dreams”

Thought that many early childhood traumas that psychologically damaged his
patients could be discovered through dream interpretation.


According to Freud…
Manifest Content- literally what is happening in the dream.

Latent Content- looking at possible deeper meanings of the dream.

Webster's Dictionary defines dreams as
“a sequence of sensations, images, thoughts etc.., passing through a persons mind”

Astral Projection

The practice of leaving ones body during sleep and
“traveling” around the dream world.

Robert Moss-”DREAMGATES”



Lucid dreams

“waking up” in a dream, becoming aware that you are dreaming

Can be anything from a faint awareness to full understanding.
Control the dream.

How to have Lucid dreams

Constantly ask your self during the day, “am I dreaming?” eventually it will become a habit and you will do it in your dreams!

Keep a dream diary

Constant reality checks

Dream Interpretation

According to many different experts, dreams can mean several different things, the same dream could mean
100 different things to 100 different people, or even 100 different things to the same person.




Dream dictionary's




Books on interpretation


The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis

Hobson& McCarley (1977)







Used PET Scan for brain imaging, found that dreams are products of activity in the Pons which contain neurotransmitters that send “random” signals to the areas of the cortex that interpret vision hearing and the other senses.

According the the The Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis, dreaming is a less realistic and more Bizarre form of thinking.

Women dream about both sexes equally

More often Victims of aggression in their dreams

Dreams relate to people they know, personal appearance
and issues related to family and home.


Dream mostly about other males

More physical aggression

Unfamiliar settings, involving weapons, cars
tools, and roads

Dr. William Domhoff found that across many cultures Men and Women
dream differently.

Women

Men

Variation in Dreams


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