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COM100 - Kish
Transcript of COM100 - Kish
PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION
How many of you are nervous about giving speeches in this class?
Top 12 Greatest Fears
bugs, snakes, other animals
Use your nervousness as a tool, rather than seeing it as a setback...
Give more speeches
Talk about something you care about
Set goals, practice at your own pace
DO NOT EXPECT PERFECTION!
THE COMMUNICATION model
Organizing the speech
Attention-getting device (AGD)
— question, story, startling statement, quotation
— central idea, the BIG point you are trying to make in the speech
— what are the smaller points you are going to talk about
Organize your points into chronological or topical order
— Chronological: the main points follow a time pattern
— Topical: the main points divide topic into logical and consistent subtopics
— a phrase that indicates when a speaker moves from point to point
Let the audience know you are ending your speech
Briefly restate what you talked about in your speech
End with a dramatic, clever, or thought-provoking statement
tips for delivery
No one is expecting you to be perfectly polished...
– DO NOT write your speech out word for word
– DO NOT try to "wing" your speech
– Try to combine both methods, using limited notes (2-3 3x5 notecards)
Rehearse the speech:
– DO NOT practice the speech word for word or try to memorize it
– Practice out loud
— Get feedback from other people
— Time the speech! Time it again!
Present the speech:
— Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart
— Let your arms rest by your side
— Gesture appropriately and naturally during the speech
— Make eye contact with your audience members
— Project your voice to the back of the room, speak at a good pace and conversationally
— Breathe, you're doing great!
What is plagiarism?
Presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own.
— when a speaker fails to give credit for specific parts of the speech
— when a speaker patches a speech together from two or three sources
— when an entire speech is taken from a single source, most unforgivable
Use quotations when using direct statements made by other people.
Use paraphrasing to restate or summarize others' ideas into your own words.
The process of hearing, making sense of, and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages.
ACTIVE LISTENing do's and Don'ts
listen too hard
jump to conclusions
Focus TOO HARSHLY on Delivery/APPEARANCE
focus your listening
· main points ·
· evidence ·
TAKE LISTENING SERIOUSLY!
· Choose a specific person that has impacted the lives of many in some way. Research their background and accomplishments. Think of 2-4 strong adjectives/experiences that would describe them. These are potentially your main points.
· Topic due 2/14. Research & draft due 2/23.
Organizing THE SPEECH
Speeches must be organized —
put together in particular ways to achieve particular results with particular audiences.
KEEP IN MIND...
Keep your main points clear & separate from each other
Use consistent, parallel structure for main points in outline
Balance the amount of support and time for each point
— A word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationships among them
— identifies when a speaker has finished one main thought and is moving on to another
— a statement that lets the audience know how the main point(s) will be broken down
— summarizes what was just talked about in each main point
— brief phrase indicating where the speaker is in the speech, shifting focus from one key idea to another
Starting your speech strong and with confidence is crucial to setting the tone of how the presentation will go with your audience...
Goals of the intro:
Establish relevance and credibility
Preview the body of the speech
Get the attention and interest of your audience (AGD)
— Motivate audience to want to know more about your topic
— Startling statement, question, story, joke, quotation, suspense
Listener relevance link:
how and why your speech may relate to or affect your audience
— Tell the audience why you are an authority on the subject of your speech
— State thesis, or the "big idea" of the speech
— Good thesis statements smoothly lead into the preview
— State and briefly explain the main points you will talk about
"...and ya, that's it."
Goals of the conclusion:
Let the audience know you are ending the speech
Reinforce audience's understanding with MEMORABLE ending
— explicitly state you are about to end; "In conclusion...," "Let me end by saying...," "Today, we have talk about/looked at...," etc.
— Briefly summarize your main points and how they support your thesis
statement that drives home importance of speech goal
— Vivid imagery, appeal to action, refer to AGD
tips for writing goal
Write as a full sentence
Express as a statement, not a question
Avoid figurative language
Limit statement to one distinct idea
Don't be too vague or general
problematic goal statements
To inform you all about Portugal.
To persuade you to believe that something has to be done about the problem of corporate tax loopholes.
To inform my audience why square grooves are superior to U-shaped grooves on golf clubs.
What is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?
To inform my audience how to register for classes.
To persuade my audience that the U.S. gov. should increase funding for the national parks and send an astronaut to Mars by 2025.
citing sources orally
HERE'S WHAT YOU NEED:
— The author(s) or sponsoring organization
— The author's qualifications with regard to the topic if not generally known by audience
— The date on which the document was published, posted, or last updated
In the words of one expert, "The prevalence of online multi-tasking is reducing the ability of people to concentrate on a single task, no matter how important the task might be."
According to a poll conducted for AT&T, most people prefer AT&T's cellular service to that of Sprint or Verizon.
It's just not true that media violence has a strong influence on violent crimes by young people. All my friends watch TV, go to the movies, and play video games, and none of us has ever committed a violent crime.
As Leonardo DiCaprio stated in a recent interview, the United States needs to reassess its Middle East policy if it hopes to achieve peace and stability in the region.
Prepare in advance!
intro to persuasion
What is persuasion?
The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions.
Tailoring to the Audience
· Goal = incremental change
PROPOSITION OF FACT
— a question about whether something is/is not true, did/did not occur, or will/will not occur
— Advocate on a particular side of argument
To persuade my audience that e-cigarettes are harmful to human health.
To persuade my audience that paperbound books will eventually cease to exist.
To persuade my audience that mobile phone use causes brain cancer.
PROPOSITION OF VALUE
— a question about the worth, rightness, morality, fairness, importance, and so forth of an idea or action
— Main points are the
you are basing your judgment off of
To persuade my audience that paper ballots are better than electronic voting machines.
To persuade my audience that bicycle riding is the ideal form of land transportation.
To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong.
PROPOSITION OF POLICY
— whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
— Passive agreement vs. immediate action; "should"
— Need, burden of proof, plan, practicality
To persuade my audience that parents and schools should begin dealing with childhood obesity.
To persuade my audience that our city should build a rapid bus system instead of a new highway.
To persuade my audience to volunteer at the Red Cross.
· CRITERIA SATISFACTION
· An error in logical reasoning.
Introduction to Communication
What is communication?
...Process through which we express, interpret, and coordinate messages with others.
Contexts & Settings
Communication context :
...the physical, social, historical, psychological, and cultural situations that surround a communication event.
location, environment (temp., lighting, noise, proximity)
relationship between participants
background provided by previous interactions
mood and feelings of each person
beliefs, values, orientations, underlying assumptions, and rituals that belong to a culture
...Based on number of participants and formality of interaction.
- subconscious thinking about our future interactions
- informal interaction between two people
- 3-20 people who come together to solve a problem to arrive at a decision
- typically one speaker who delivers a message to a group of 20+ people
- individuals/groups that distribute messages to large segments of the population
The communication Process
...the route traveled by the message and the means of transportation.
- any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning
5 purposes of communication
Develop & maintain sense of self
Meet social needs
Develop and maintain relationships
To exchange information
To influence others
8 characteristics of communication
Guided by cultural norms
Whatever you communicate has ethical implications. In this class, you must follow these ethical principles...
Communicate truthfully and honestly.
Act with integrity.
Be responsible for your words and actions.
COMMUNICATING ETHICALLY & CONFIDENTLY
COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE &
— System of symbols used to communicate
— The collection of words and expressions for a specific language
- sounds used to pronounce words
SYNTAX & GRAMMAR
- rules for combining words to form sentences and larger units of expression
Meaning & perception
1. Attention & Selection
4. Dual Processing
(needs, interests, expectations)
(automatic processing/heuristics, conscious processing)
(perception of skills, knowledge, personality, etc.)
(evaluation of worthiness based on self-concept)
gap between self-perception & reality
(self-fulfilling prophecies, personal filter, media)
· Social construction of self -
sharing different aspects of self-concept based on situation
forming perceptions of others
· Uncertainty Reduction
- impression formation
(situational & dispositional attributions)
- paying attention only to what we expect and ignoring everything else
- attempt to make several perceptions about another person agree with each other
· Prejudices, stereotypes, discrimination
· Racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, heterosexism, ageism, ableism
Perception & Culture
· Culture influences perception...
· Cultural Identity -
part of self-concept based on association with dominant and/or with various co-cultures
DOMINANT CULTURE -
learned system of norms held by majority group in a society
smaller group of people who hold common values, beliefs, attitudes, & customs that differ from those of dominant culture
· Sexual Orientation
· Socioeconomic Status
...whenever you communicate.
· Basics of Communication
· The Communication Process
· Characteristic & Purposes of Communication
· Communication Ethics
· Assigned Self-Introduction Speech
· Language & Meaning
· Perception of Self & Others
· The Perception Process
· Intercultural Communication
· Language & Meaning
· The Perception Process
· Perception of Self & Others
· Intercultural Communication
· Delivery (Voice & Body)
· Self-Introduction Speeches
4 Listening Styles
focus on facts/evidence
focus on finding main point of messages
focus on feelings & emotions
focus on keeping conversation brief
The anxiety we feel about listening;
when we worry about misinterpreting the message or are concerned about how the message will affect us psychologically.
when feeling ill, tired, or stressed
Passive listening -
habitual process of receiving messages; autopilot
Active listening -
conscious process of attending to, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and responding to messages
active listening Process
- willfully perceiving selected sounds
- accurately decoding a message
- moving information from short-term to long-term memory
(ready to listen, resist distractions, observe nonverbals, hear a person out)
(identify main point, ask questions, paraphrase to verify content/feelings, empathize with other perspective/situation, provide sympathy if needed)
(take notes, repeat the information if necessary, construct mnemonic devices)
- critically analyzing messages
(separate facts from inferences, offer supportive critiques if needed)
- providing appropriate feedback
1. Be respectful -
evaluate others how you would want to be evaluated
2. Use "I" language -
own the comments you make to others; don't give orders
3. Use specific language and specific examples
4. Start with a positive -
do not jump to negatives right away; be supportive
Figures 6.2 and 6.3 on p.81-82 give examples
Amount of fear we experience when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience.
Stages of apprehension
Anxiety we feel before giving a speech.
Anxiety we feel during a speech.
When our anxiety gradually decreases as we speak.
Adjust your orientation to the assignment
(Performance vs. Communication orientation)
(Positive mental run-through of full speech)
(Attach calm feelings to stressful situations)
Cognitive Restructuring (Figure 15.2, p.220)
(Identify your fears and specific coping strategies)
(Systematic learning and practicing)
pronunciation, enunciation, accent)
· Vocal Expression
(pitch, volume, rate; avoid monotone;
use of body
- consider your audience,
don't be distracting
- confidence, controlled use of body
· Posture & Poise
· Eye contact
- engage audience, helps gauge audience's feedback
· Facial expressions
- nonverbal immediacy, helps animate speech
· Gestures & movement
- relaxed & have purpose
· Delivery (voice & body)
· Self-Intro Speeches
· Group Communication
· Group Problem Solving
· Delivery Methods
· Organizing the Body
· Defining a Topic
3-20 people who interact to accomplish a common purpose or group goal
members have similar skill sets, may approach problem from same perspective
members have diverse information, perspectives, and values
that benefit both the members of the group and others
— members rely on each other to accomplish group goal
cohesiveness, trust, and respect
4. Abide by
explicit behavioral expectations
to which group members are held accountable
5. Work together to create synergy — a group force greater than any singular part
STages of Group Development
- members learn about each other and attempt to define group goal and roles
- conflict and power play further determine group structure; vs. groupthink
- established rules increase cohesion, collaboration, trust, and motivation of group
- focused on task and problem solving; skills of members combined
- meaning is assigned to goals accomplished; relationships defined
- group continues to exist with new goal
Be committed to the group goal.
Keep discussion on track.
Complete individual assignments on time.
Encourage input from others.
· PSEUDO-CONFLICT -
· ISSUE-RELATED CONFLICT -
· PERSONALITY-RELATED CONFLICT -
When group members believe there is a disagreement when they actually agree. Resolve by listening and paraphrasing others' message.
When two or more members' goals ideas, or opinions about topic are incompatible. Resolve by expressing position with facts or holding group discussion. Define goals.
When two or more members become defensive because they feel they are being attacked. Typically rooted in power struggle. Resolve by turning into issue-related problem.
Group Problem Solving
Identify the problem
Analyze the problem
Determine criteria to judge solutions
Identify alternative solutions
Evaluate solutions & decide
Implement solution & assess it
- Delivered with only seconds or minutes of advance notice; little to no notes
- Researched & planned ahead of time;
NOT scripted; run-throughs vary
- Delivered from complete written manuscript; require time to effectively prepare; usually reserved for important occasions
The rhetorical situation
The state in which you, your audience, and the occasion overlap.
· Must effectively provide
during the speech,
or reasons the message needs to be given.
Identify the general demographic features of your audience
Gauge the importance of those features to the situation
AVOID STEREOTYPING & MARGINALIZING!!
SURVEY YOUR AUDIENCE IF POSSIBLE
· Identify purpose of presentation and traits of the environment that could affect how the message is delivered.
length of speech?
size of audience?
Where/when will it be presented?
other equipment needed?
other assignment criteria?
selecting a topic & Goal
· List topics you already have knowledge of, are interested in, or think are important
· Begin brainstorming/concept mapping
· Analyze audience/situation & choose topic
· Develop a general and specific goal (thesis)
- GENERAL - the overall intent of the speech (i.e., to entertain, inform, or persuade)
- SPECIFIC - response speaker wants from audience
- WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW?
· Chronological order
· Topical order
· Logical reasons order
- points arranged in sequence or by steps in a process
- points structured using logical relationship between them
· Narrative order
- points arranged in story/series of stories that dramatizes thesis
- points structured as reasons to accept thesis as desirable or true
Example Thesis Statements
To maintain good health, let's discuss three proven methods for ridding our bodies of harmful toxins: staying hydrated, reducing animal foods, and eating natural whole foods.
Today, I want to share my story as a person living with anorexia. I'll start by describing what a typical day is like for me as a recovering anorexic, then how I became anorexic, and finally, who saved my life.
Donating to the United Way is appropriate because your one donation can be divided among many charities, you can stipulate which specific charities you wish to support, and a high percentage of your donation goes to charities.
The four steps involved in developing a personal network are to analyze your current networking potential, to position yourself in places for opportunity, to advertise yourself, and to follow up on contacts.
· Start by first writing out thesis statement, including main points
A. Main point #1
1. Subpoint/first example
2. Subpoint/second example
B. Main point #2
1. Subpoint/first example
2. Subpoint/second example
· Fill out body of outline in full sentences, parallel structure
May go to sub-subpoints if necessary
Write in transitions/connectives between points
· Group Communication
· Overview of Group Presentation
· Selecting a Topic & Org. Pattern
· Outlining & Connectives
· Effective Intros & Conclusions
· Overview of Commemorative Research Assignment
· Language Use & Nonverbal Communication
· Evaluating & Citing Sources
1. Outline -
outline format, full sentences, clear supporting material, transitions written between points, bibliography of sources
2. Commemorative Script -
word-for-word copy of speech
3. In-class delivery -
briefly describe credibility & significance of 2 sources used in speech
due in class on February 23rd!
Effective Oral Styles
how we convey messages verbally
Short sentences, familiar/specific language
Use plural personal pronouns
We, us, our
- converse with your audience
· Colorful adjectives, rhetorical figures of speech
Clear structural elements
· Help listeners conceptualize your framework
first, second, next, additionally, further, etc.
Some things to
to help build credibility...
Generic language -
words that apply only to one sex, race, or other co-cultural group
Non-parallel language -
when terms are changed because of sex, race, etc.
adding group designators to a description
— Irrelevant Association:
unnecessarily emphasizing a relationship between two individuals; doesn't add to point
"Dirty" Humor/Profanity -
may be offensive to some listeners
Relating to your Audience
Speaking appropriately and ethically is the first step to relating your speech to your audience...
· Verbal Immediacy -
language used to decrease the psychological distance between your message and your audience
how audience can use information
relating information to audience's space
— Personal Impact:
information can potentially have a serious effect on audience members
— Common Ground:
identify similar experiences with audience members; "we, us, our"; rhetorical questions
Paint a picture with your words to help audience understand the message.
· Sensory language -
use descriptive words to re-create what something looks, smells, sounds, tastes, or feels like
· Rhetorical figures of speech -
similes (like/as), metaphors (implied comparisons), analogies, antithesis; don't overuse
· "Word Play" -
alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, repetition, personification
· Paralanguage -
pitch, volume, rate, voice quality, intonation/inflection, vocalized pauses
Nonverbal messages should match the verbal ones!
· Gestures -
emblems, illustrators, adaptors
· Facial Expressions & Eye Contact -
primary conveyer of emotions
· Posture -
shows attentiveness & confidence
· Body Orientation -
position in relation to others
· Body Movement -
motivated vs. unmotivated
· Proxemics -
how space/distance communicates a message
Nonverbal messages may mean different things to different people.
Consider the context.
Pay attention to the relationship between nonverbal and verbal messages.
Check your perception/interpretation.
· Good places to start?
Secondary Research -
information about your topic from other people
Primary Research -
collecting your own information on your topic from the real world
- Encyclopedias, Books, Articles, Newspapers, Statistical Sources, Biographies, Quotationaries, Websites, Government Documents
— Fieldwork observations, Surveys, Interviews, Original Artifacts/Documents, Experiments
— factual, truthful information
— unbiased, balanced discussion
— history of accuracy
credentials or reputation of author or organization that published the material
identify thesis/purpose of author(s)
newer information = more accurate; check dates when published/written
if not related to your thesis/goal, don't use it
EXAMPLES, STATISTICS, and QUOTATIONS
— specific instances that help illustrate or explain general statements
— Make sure examples relate to the point of the speech
— numerical facts to support a point
— Must be valid & reliable; cross-check with other sources!
— help explain what facts mean or put them into perspective
— Look for EXPERT opinions; avoid long quotations
— The specific information you pulled from the source that supports your point
Try to introduce your supporting material in different ways, not just "According to..."
commemorative speech examples
· Group work day
· Commemorative Practice
· Rehearsing & Delivering the Speech
· Intros & Conclusions
· Language Use
· Nonverbal Messages
Rehearsing the speech
repeatedly practicing your speech aloud
...if you don't practice, it WILL show.
Commemorative research assignment
Prepare speaking notes if necessary
Full sentences for main points
& supporting material
Quotes, facts, stats written out
Main ideas/key words used
Delivery & presentational cues
Outline structure (I, II, III, A, B, a, b, 1, 2, etc.)
Written on notecards
rehearsing the speech
Plan out presentational aids & technology
The first practice session
· Record yourself or have others watch
· Try to only use your speaking notes
· Make the practice as similar to the speech situation as possible
· TIME YOUR SPEECH!! And whatever happens, keep going
· Laugh at your mistakes, then come up with a plan to resolve them for the next run-through
rehearsing the speech
The second practice session
· Check recording for improvements
- Leave anything out?
- How was your delivery?
- Were your points easily understandable?
- Are the main point evenly divided?
- Presentational aids introduced smoothly?
· Make changes from first practice
Additional practice sessions (Yes, you should run your speech more than twice!)
· TIME YOUR SPEECH!!
· Depending on audience feedback, you may need to adapt your speech during the presentation
· Remain calm during unexpected interruptions; try to keep the audience focused on your message
· Don't draw extra attention to your mistakes—making them is NORMAL, making them a bigger deal is not
Peer assessment overview
· Commemorative Speeches
· Commemorative Speeches
· Finish Commemorative Speeches
· Introduction to Informative
· Overview of Informative Speech
· Informative Speech -
designed to educate; to explain, or describe something to achieve shared meaning & increase audience understanding
Good informative speeches will be...
· Intellectually stimulating
· Relevant to the audience
· Creative & memorable
· Adapted for diverse learning styles
· Intellectually stimulating & creative
— presents a new take on a subject & is explained in a way to pique curiosity and interest
· Relevant to your audience
— provide listener relevance links by asking yourself how we benefit from each main point and stating why in your speech
— Since you are presenting new information, you need to help your audience remember what is most important (Figure 16.2, pg.247)
Adapt to diverse learning styles
· "Feeling" learners -
provide concrete, vivid images and examples
· "Watching" learners -
present visual aids & diagrams
· "Thinking" learners -
provide definitions, explanations, and statistics
· "Doing" learners -
encourage audience action during or after the speech
Methods of informing
· Descriptions -
create vivid mental picture by providing details about how something looks or feels
· Definitions -
explain the meaning of something by comparing/contrasting to other things, or by explaining its history or function
· Narrations -
provide story line with important people, a problem, an effect, and a solution to the problem
· Demonstrations -
show/explain how something is done or how something works
Informative speaking patterns
· Expository Speeches
· Process Speeches
— Provide carefully researched knowledge about complex topic
— Use various informative methods
Political, economic, social, religious, or ethical issues; Historical events; Theories, laws, or principles; Explanation of creative works (pg.251-253)
– Demonstrate how something is done, is made, or works
— Rely heavily on demonstration method of informing, but may use other methods
— Explain steps of how something occurred/occurs
How to Beatbox, How to Knit, How Cavities are Formed
Informative Topic Find
· Come up with a list of 4 different process speech topics
· For each topic, identify how it can be broken down into 3-4 steps
Communication analysis example #1
"Michael Brown Black Angel" by Ti-Rock Moore
What is being
- Police brutality
- Racism in America
- Loss of human life
Is the source credible?
- Moore is white female
civil rights activist
- Gallery specializes on
African American lives
- White artist, Black community
- Dead on display
Should it be
communication analysis example #2
"The Phelps' Training Secret"
What is being communicated?
- Eat Subway
Is the source credible?
- Phelps family
- Eat Subway to be like Michael Phelps
- Feed your children
Subway to be a good mother
- "And athletes everywhere..."
Should it be communicated
- Introduction to Informative
- Assigned Informative Speech
- Group Presentations #1 & 2; Interpersonal Relationships & Interpersonal Communication
- Presentational Aids
Informative Research Assignment
— Including full transitions, listener relevance links for each main point, and references page
— Outlines emailed to me will
· In-class portion
— Explain credibility, dates, and info for
— Explain effectiveness and use of
1 visual aid
DUe Thursday, November 3!!
· Material used to ENHANCE a verbal message without overpowering it
People & objects -
physical samples, gestures/body movement, clothing
drawing of how the whole relates to its parts
show relationship between steps in a process or parts of a unit
version of objects
presentational aids, cont'd
show relationship between numerical variables or how something progresses over time
Presentational aids, cont'd
Photographs & Maps
Audio & Audiovisual aids
Other sensory aids
· Consider the audience
· Limit reading
· Organize aids strategically
· Use consistent fonts & colors
· Describe what you use
· Structure them smoothly
· REMEMBER: Technology is unpredictable!
Always have a "Plan B"
· Choose presentational aids
depending on need
informative speech examples
· Finish Informative Speeches
· Introduction to Persuasion
· Assign Persuasive Speech
How are you normally persuaded to do something?
the "available means of persuasion"
- logical arguments that support position
- appeal to emotions to gain support
- highlighting speaker credibility/character
· Target audience
- Uninformed, neutral, apathetic
· In favor? ...Call for action to be done
1. Divide into groups
2. Create list of 6 propositions
(2 per fact, value, & policy)
· STATEMENT OF REASONS
- main points are best-supported reasons (fact)
Prop.: I want my audience to believe that passing the proposed school tax levy is necessary.
I. Income will enable schools to restore vital programs
II. Income will enable schools to give teaches raises
III. Income will save district from state intervention
· COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES
- main points show benefits of proposed action compared to no action (value)
Prop.: I want my audience to believe that passing the school tax levy is better than not passing it.
- 1st main point is criteria audience should agree with before accepting 2nd point, the specific solution
Prop.: I want my audience to believe that passing school tax levy is good way to fund our schools.
I. Good school funding method must meet three criteria
A. Reestablishes dropped programs
B. Results in fair pay for teachers
C. Generates enough income to avoid state intervention
II. Passage of local school tax levy is best way to fund schools
A. Re-fund important programs
B. Gives teachers a raise
C. Generate enough income to maintain local control
- main points present opposing arguments and then challenges them
- 1st main point explains nature of agreed-upon problem, 2nd point proposes solution
current fiscal crisis
in the school district can be solved through a
local tax levy.
- similar to Problem-Solution, but 2nd point explains causes before offering solution in 3rd point
· MOTIVATED SEQUENCE
- traditional intro, body, conclusion replaced with 5-step process
Prop.: I want my audience to vote in favor of the school tax levy on the November ballot.
Comparisons of worldwide test scores in math and science have refocused our attention on education.
II. (Need; Problem)
Shortage of money is resulting in cost-cutting that compromises our ability to teach basic academic subjects well.
Proposed increase will allow for increased emphasis on academic need areas.
Think of contribution you will be making to the education of your children and to better our educational system
Here are "Vote Yes" buttons that you can wear to show your support.
· Logical Fallacies
· Persuasive Speech
· Appeal to logic of audience
— CLAIM... your argument
— SUPPORT... evidence to accept claim
— WARRANT... reasoning process that connects supports to the claim (sometimes implied)
C: I want Jim to believe that his car needs a tune-up.
S: I. The engine misses at slow speeds.
S: II. The car stalls at stoplights.
W: (Missing and stalling are major indicators of the need for a tune-up)
— Weak or not enough supporting material
(post hoc, ergo propter hoc)
— sequence of events does not equal causation
— suggesting only 2 alternatives when others exist
— misrepresenting opposing position and arguing against it
— attacks/praises person rather than argument
· Language Community
· Speech Community
- all people who speak and understand a particular language
- smaller groups/co-cultures that speak a common dialect
- unique form of a more general language
- personal symbol system that includes or active vocabularies and unique pronunciations
meaning derived from words themselves
DENOTATIVE vs. CONNOTATIVE
meaning derived from particular context
meaning derived from cultural norms
Meaning is based on perception, as perception is often the reality.
— communication between people whose cultures are so different to the extent communication is altered
What groups are you a part of?
"This speech is going to be horrible.."
"Why am I so ugly?"
"Heck ya, I'm definitely hot enough to get their number!"
- Monitoring social environment to learn more about self and others
· Speaking Apprehension