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COM100 - Kish

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Transcript of COM100 - Kish

Kishwaukee college
Com 100
FALL 2016

Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 5
Week 4
Week 6
Week 8
Week 9
Week 7
Week 10
Week 11
Week 12
Week 13
Week 14
Week 15
Syllabus
PUBLIC SPEAKING APPREHENSION
How many of you are nervous about giving speeches in this class?
Top 12 Greatest Fears
public speaking
heights
bugs, snakes, other animals
drowning
blood/needles
claustrophobia
flying
strangers
zombies
darkness
clowns
ghosts
(
Washington Post
, 2014)
Use your nervousness as a tool, rather than seeing it as a setback...
Give more speeches
Talk about something you care about
Set goals, but practice at your own pace
Think positively!
Visualization
Breathe
DO NOT EXPECT PERFECTION!
THE COMMUNICATION model
speaker
message
CHANNEL
FEEDBACK
LISTENER(S)
SITUATION
interference
SELF-INTRODUCTION SPEECH
Organizing the speech
INTRODUCTION
BODY
CONCLUSION
Attention-getting device (AGD)
Thesis
Preview
— question, story, startling statement, quotation
— central idea, the BIG point you are trying to make in the speech
— what are the smaller points you are going to talk about
Organize your points into chronological or topical order
— Chronological: the main points follow a time pattern
— Topical: the main points divide topic into logical and consistent subtopics
Transitions
— a phrase that indicates when a speaker moves from point to point
Let the audience know you are ending your speech
Briefly restate what you talked about in your speech
End with a dramatic, clever, or thought-provoking statement
tips for delivery
No one is expecting you to be perfectly polished...
Extemporaneous speaking:
– DO NOT write your speech out word for word
– DO NOT try to "wing" your speech
– Try to combine both methods, using limited notes (2-3 3x5 notecards)
Rehearse the speech:
– DO NOT practice the speech word for word or try to memorize it
– Practice out loud
— Get feedback from other people
— Time the speech! Time it again!
Present the speech:
— Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart
— Let your arms rest by your side
— Gesture appropriately and naturally during the speech
— Make eye contact with your audience members
— Project your voice to the back of the room, speak at a good pace and conversationally
— Breathe, you're doing great!
PLAGIARISM
What is plagiarism?
Presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own.
3 TYPES
INCREMENTAL
PATCHWORK
GLOBAL
— when a speaker fails to give credit for specific parts of the speech
— when a speaker patches a speech together from two or three sources
— when an entire speech is taken from a single source, most unforgivable
Use quotations when using direct statements made by other people.
Use paraphrasing to restate or summarize others' ideas into your own words.
LISTENING
The process of hearing, making sense of , and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages.
ACTIVE LISTENing do's and Don'ts
DON'T
DO
LOSE concentratiON
listen too hard
jump to conclusions
Focus TOO HARSHLY on Delivery/APPEARANCE
take notes
focus your listening
Suspend judgment
· main points ·
· evidence ·
RESIST DISTRACTIONS
TAKE LISTENING SERIOUSLY!
COMMEMORATIVE SPEECH
· Choose a specific person that has impacted the lives of many in some way. Research their background and accomplishments. Think of 2-4 strong adjectives/experiences that would describe them. These are potentially your main points.
· Topic due 9/27. Research & speech due 10/6.
65 points
Organizing THE SPEECH
Speeches must be organized —
strategically
put together in particular ways to achieve particular results with particular audiences.
KEEP IN MIND...
Keep your main points clear & separate from each other
Use consistent, parallel structure for main points in outline
Balance the amount of support and time for each point
Connectives
— A word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationships among them
transitions
Internal previews
Internal summaries
signposts
— identifies when a speaker has finished one main thought and is moving on to another
— a statement that lets the audience know how the main point(s) will be broken down
— summarizes what was just talked about in each main point
— brief phrase indicating where the speaker is in the speech, shifting focus from one key idea to another
Introductions
Starting your speech strong and with confidence is crucial to setting the tone of how the presentation will go with your audience...
Goals of the intro:
Establish relevance and credibility
Preview the body of the speech
Get the attention and interest of your audience (AGD)
— Motivate audience to want to know more about your topic
— Startling statement, question, story, joke, quotation, suspense

Listener relevance link:
how and why your speech may relate to or affect your audience
— Tell the audience why you are an authority on the subject of your speech
— State thesis, or the "big idea" of the speech
— Good thesis statements smoothly lead into the preview
— State and briefly explain the main points you will talk about
conclusions
"...and ya, that's it."
"...Thank you."
".................."
Goals of the conclusion:
Let the audience know you are ending the speech
Reinforce audience's understanding with MEMORABLE ending
— explicitly state you are about to end; "In conclusion...," "Let me end by saying...," "Today, we have talk about/looked at...," etc.
— Briefly summarize your main points and how they support your thesis

"Clincher":
statement that drives home importance of speech goal
— Vivid imagery, appeal to action, refer to AGD
tips for writing goal
Write as a full sentence
Express as a statement, not a question
Avoid figurative language
Limit statement to one distinct idea
Don't be too vague or general
problematic goal statements
To inform my audience about Portugal.
To persuade my audience that something has to be done about the problem of corporate tax loopholes.
Donate blood.
To inform my audience why square grooves are superior to U-shaped grooves on golf clubs.
What is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?
To inform my audience how to register for classes.
To persuade my audience that the U.S. gov. should increase funding for the national parks and send an astronaut to Mars by 2025.
citing sources orally
HERE'S WHAT YOU NEED:
— The author(s) or sponsoring organization
— The author's qualifications with regard to the topic if not generally known by audience
— The date on which the document was published, posted, or last updated
problematic citations
In the words of one expert, "The prevalence of online multi-tasking is reducing the ability of people to concentrate on a single task, no matter how important the task might be."
According to a poll conducted for AT&T, most people prefer AT&T's cellular service to that of Sprint or Verizon.
It's just not true that media violence has a strong influence on violent crimes by young people. All my friends watch TV, go to the movies, and play video games, and none of us has ever committed a violent crime.
As Leonardo DiCaprio stated in a recent interview, the United States needs to reassess its Middle East policy if it hopes to achieve peace and stability in the region.
Prepare in advance!
intro to persuasion
What is persuasion?
The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions.
Tailoring to the Audience
· Goal = incremental change
Propositions
PROPOSITION OF FACT
— a question about whether something is/is not true, did/did not occur, or will/will not occur
— Advocate on a particular side of argument
To persuade my audience that e-cigarettes are harmful to human health.
To persuade my audience that paperbound books will eventually cease to exist.
To persuade my audience that mobile phone use causes brain cancer.
Propositions
PROPOSITION OF VALUE
— a question about the worth, rightness, morality, fairness, importance, and so forth of an idea or action
— Main points are the
valued

standards
you are basing your judgment off of
To persuade my audience that paper ballots are better than electronic voting machines.
To persuade my audience that bicycle riding is the ideal form of land transportation.
To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong.
Propositions
PROPOSITION OF POLICY
— whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
— Passive agreement vs. immediate action; "should"
— Need, burden of proof, plan, practicality
To persuade my audience that parents and schools should begin dealing with childhood obesity.
To persuade my audience that our city should build a rapid bus system instead of a new highway.
To persuade my audience to volunteer at the Red Cross.
Persuasive patterns
· CRITERIA SATISFACTION
Logos
Fallacies
· An error in logical reasoning.
False Cause
Ad hominem
Either-or
Examples
Slippery slope
Either/or
Ad Hominem
Red herring
Hasty
generalization
False cause
Appeal Examples
persuasive speech
examples
Introduction to Communication
What is communication?
...Process through which we express, interpret, and coordinate messages with others.
Express...?
Interpret...?
Coordinate...?
Contexts & Settings
Communication context :
...the physical, social, historical, psychological, and cultural situations that surround a communication event.
Physical =

location, environment (temp., lighting, noise, proximity)
Social =

relationship between participants
Historical =

background provided by previous interactions
Psychological =

mood and feelings of each person
Cultural =

beliefs, values, orientations, underlying assumptions, and rituals that belong to a culture
Communication settings
...Based on number of participants and formality of interaction.
INTRApersonal
INTERpersonal
Small-Group
Public
Mass
- subconscious thinking about our future interactions
- informal interaction between two people
- 3-20 people who come together to solve a problem to arrive at a decision
- typically one speaker who delivers a message to a group of 20+ people
- individuals/groups that distribute messages to large segments of the population
The communication Process
SHARED
MEANING!
=
+
+
MESSAGE
PRODUCTION
MESSAGE
INTERPRETATION
INTERACTION
COORDINATION
CHANNELS
...the route traveled by the message and the means of transportation.
face-to-face channels?
mediated channels?
Interference (noise)
- any stimulus that interferes with the process of sharing meaning
external
Internal
semantic
5 purposes of communication
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Develop & maintain sense of self
Meet social needs
Develop and maintain relationships
To exchange information
To influence others
8 characteristics of communication
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Has purpose
Is continuous
Is irreversible
Is situated
Is indexical
Is learned
Spontaneous
or constructed
Guided by cultural norms
communication ethics
Whatever you communicate has ethical implications. In this class, you must follow these ethical principles...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Communicate truthfully and honestly.
Act with integrity.
Show respect.
Behave fairly.
Be responsible for your words and actions.
COMMUNICATING ETHICALLY & CONFIDENTLY
=
COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE &
CREDIBILITY
Due Sept.15
charades!!
RULES:
1.
2.
3.
First Round
- describe however you can WITHOUT SAYING THE TERM itself
Second Round
- describe using ONLY ONE word
Third Round
- describe NONVERBALLY
LANGUAGE
· System of symbols used to communicate
LEXICON
· The collection of words and expressions for a specific language
·
PHONOLOGY
- sounds used to pronounce words
·
SYNTAX & GRAMMAR
- rules for combining words to form sentences and larger units of expression
LANGUAGE
COMMUNITIES
· All people who can speak or understand a particular language
SPEECH
COMMUNITIES
· Smaller groups that speak a common dialect
·
DIALECT
- unique form of a more general language spoken by a specific culture or co-culture
IDIOLECT
· Our own personal symbol system that includes our active vocabularies and our unique pronunciations, grammar, and syntax
language & meaning
· Language is arbitrary, abstract, & always changing
PRAGMATICS
SEMANTICS
SOCIOLINGUISTICS
- meaning derived from words
- meaning derived from context
DENOTATIVE
- meaning according to particular cultural norms
CONNOTATIVE
- dictionary
- associated feelings
perception process
1. Attention & Selection
3. Interpretation
4. Dual Processing
2. Organization
(simplicity, pattern)
(needs, interests, expectations)
(automatic processing/heuristics, conscious processing)
(assign meaning)
self-perception
1. Self-concept
2. Self-esteem
(perception of skills, knowledge, personality, etc.)
(evaluation of worthiness based on self-concept)
Incongruence -
gap between self-perception & reality
(self-fulfilling prophecies, personal filter, media)
Social construction of self -
sharing different aspects of self-concept based on situation
(self-monitoring)
forming perceptions of others
· Uncertainty reduction (Berger & Bradac, 1982)
- impression formation
(situational & dispositional attributions)
- implicit personality theory
(assuming two+ personality traits go together)
·
Selective perception
- paying attention only to what we expect and ignoring everything else
·
Forced consistency
- attempt to make several perceptions about another person agree with each other
· Prejudices, stereotypes, discrimination
· Racism, ethnocentrism, sexism, heterosexism, ageism, ableism
intercultural communication
· Culture influences perception which influences language...
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
- interactions between people whose cultures are so different to the extent communication is altered
· Cultural Identity -
part of self-concept based on association with dominant and/or with various co-cultures
DOMINANT CULTURE -
learned system of norms held by majority group in a society
CO-CULTURE -
smaller group of people who hold common values, beliefs, attitudes, & customs that differ from those of dominant culture
Consider...
· Race
· Ethnicity
· Sex
· Gender
· Sexual Orientation
· Religion
· Socioeconomic Status
· Age
· Disability
...whenever you communicate.
Cultural differences
Individualistic
Low-context
Monochronic
Polychronic
High-context
Collectivist
Low-uncertainty
avoidance
High-uncertainty
avoidance
Low power-distance
High power-distance
Masculine
Feminine
Short-term oriented
Long-term oriented
rules
1. Tolerate ambiguity/uncertainty
2. Be open-minded
3. Avoid ego/ethnocentrism
4. Actively listen to others
5. Practice intercultural empathy
6. Develop flexibility
self-introduction examples
Last Week:
This Week:
· Basics of Communication
· The Communication Process
· Characteristic & Purposes of Communication
· Communication Ethics
· Assigned Self-Introduction Speech
· Language & Meaning
· Perception of Self & Others
· The Perception Process
· Intercultural Communication
last week:
this week:
· Language & Meaning
· The Perception Process
· Perception of Self & Others
· Intercultural Communication
· Listening
· Delivery (Voice & Body)
· Self-Introduction Speeches
4 Listening Styles
Content-oriented
-
focus on facts/evidence
People-oriented -
Action-oriented -
focus on finding main point of messages
focus on feelings of conversational partner
Time-oriented -
focus on keeping conversation brief
listening apprehension
The anxiety we feel about listening;
when we worry about misinterpreting the message or are concerned about how the message will affect us psychologically.
Job training
difficult/confusing content
when feeling ill, tired, or stressed
processing
Passive listening -
habitual process of receiving messages; autopilot
Active listening -
conscious process of attending to, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and responding to messages
active listening Process
Attending
Understanding
Remembering
Evaluating
Responding
- willfully perceiving selected sounds
- accurately decoding a message
- moving information from short-term to long-term memory
(ready to listen, resist distractions, observe nonverbals, hear a person out)
(identify main point, ask questions, paraphrase to verify content/feelings, empathize with other perspective/situation, provide sympathy if needed)
(take notes, repeat the information if necessary, construct mnemonic devices)
- critically analyzing messages
(separate facts from inferences, offer supportive critiques if needed)
- providing appropriate feedback
Critiquing others
1. Be respectful -
evaluate others how you would want to be evaluated
2. Use "I" language -
own the comments you make to others; don't give orders
3. Use specific language and specific examples
4. Start with a positive -
do not jump to negatives right away; be supportive
Figures 6.2 and 6.3 on p.81-82 give examples
Amount of fear we experience when anticipating or actually speaking to an audience.
Stages of apprehension
1.
2.
3.
ANTICIPATION PHASE
CONFRONTATION PHASE
ADAPTATION PHASE
Anxiety we feel before giving a speech.
Anxiety we feel during a speech.
When our anxiety gradually decreases as we speak.
apprehension management
·
Adjust your orientation to the assignment
(Performance vs. Communication orientation)
·
Visualization
(Positive mental run-through of full speech)
·
Systematic Desensitization
(Attach calm feelings to stressful situations)
·
Cognitive Restructuring (Figure 15.2, p.220)
(Identify your fears and specific coping strategies)
Skills Training
·
(Systematic learning and practicing)
Voice Delivery
· Conversational
· Animated
(seemingly spontaneous)
(lively, dynamic)
· Intelligibility/Understandability
(articulation,
pronunciation, enunciation, accent)
· Vocal Expression
(pitch, volume, rate; avoid monotone;
use pauses)
voice delivery example
...So, let's spend the next few minutes discussing the benefits volunteering can have for us as college students by focusing on how volunteering helps us get acquainted with the local community, why civic engagement is the responsibility of every citizen, and what volunteering can do to teach us new skills and build our resumes. Let's begin by explaining the ways volunteering can connect each of us to our local community.
Giving back to the community through volunteer work is our civic responsibility and a privilege. Each of us in this room—whether as U.S. citizens or international students—are reaping the benefits of earning college degrees in this democratic society. With that benefit comes the responsibility of giving back by volunteering in our local communities. Wilson and Musick argue that, without active participation in the local community, civil society becomes deprived. I agree. Giving back by volunteering helps the community in so many ways.
Today we've discussed why volunteering is beneficial to college students by focusing on how volunteering can connect us quickly and easily to our local community, why it's both our responsibility and privilege to do so, and how volunteering will benefit us after we graduate. So, I'm hoping the next time you recall a time you really enjoyed making a difference by helping someone, that memory won't come from the distant past. Instead, I hope you'll be thinking about how you are being the change you seek in the world by volunteering right here in Lexington right now.
(p.238)
use of body
· Appearance
- consider your audience,
don't be distracting
- confidence, controlled use of body
· Posture & Poise
· Eye contact
- engage audience, helps gauge audience's feedback
· Facial expressions
- nonverbal immediacy, helps animate speech
· Gestures & movement
- relaxed & have purpose
Last week:
This Week:
· Listening
· Delivery (voice & body)
· Self-Intro Speeches
· Group Communication
· Group Roles & Problem Solving
· Delivery Methods
· Organizing the Body
· Defining a Topic
Group communication
GROUP —
3-20 people who interact an attempt to influence each other to accomplish a common purpose
· Types of groups?
FAMILY
SOCIAL GROUP
SUPPORT GROUP
INTEREST GROUP
SERVICE GROUP
WORK GROUP TEAM
Work group teams
...Smaller groups make decisions faster than larger ones!
A collection of 3 or more people formed to solve a problem.
Homogenous -
members have similar skill sets, may approach problem from same perspective
Heterogeneous -
members have diverse information, perspectives, and values
1st thing
to do
:
Define your TEAM GOAL!
HEALTHY GROUPS
1. Have
ethical goals
that benefit both the members of the group and others
2. Are
interdependent
— members rely on each other to accomplish group goal
3. Develop
cohesiveness, trust, and respect
between members
4. Abide by
explicit behavioral expectations
to which group members are held accountable
5. Work together to create synergy — a group force greater than any singular part
STages of Group Development
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
FORMING
STORMING
NORMING
PERFORMING
TRANSFORMING
- members learn about each other and attempt to define group goal and roles
- conflict and power play further determine group structure; vs. groupthink
- established rules increase cohesion, collaboration, trust, and motivation of group
- focused on task and problem solving; skills of members combined
6.
ADJOURNING
- meaning is assigned to goals accomplished; relationships defined
- group continues to exist with new goal
Group Member Roles
· Task Roles:
· Procedural
Roles:
· Maintenance
Roles:
Givers
- offer opinions/information
Seekers
- "seek" information from others
Analyzers
- evaluate group discussions
Supporters
- provide encouragement to others
Interpreters
- attach meaning to member behaviors
Harmonizers
- intervene during conflicts
Mediators
- impartial members who guide discussion
Tension relievers
- uses humor to keep group cohesive
Logistics coordinators
- plan for group meetings and gather supplies needed
Expeditors
- keep group focus on objectives
Gatekeepers
- manage equal flow of communication
Recorders
- keep notes of group decisions
shared responsibilities
1.
Be committed to the group goal.
2.
Keep discussion on track.
3.
Complete individual assignments on time.
4.
Encourage input from others.
5.
Manage conflict.
Group Conflict
· PSEUDO-CONFLICT -
· ISSUE-RELATED CONFLICT -
· PERSONALITY-RELATED CONFLICT -
When group members believe there is a disagreement when they actually agree. Resolve by listening and paraphrasing others' message.
When two or more members' goals ideas, or opinions about topic are incompatible. Resolve by expressing position with facts or holding group discussion. Define goals.
When two or more members become defensive because they feel they are being attacked. Typically rooted in power struggle. Resolve by turning into issue-related problem.
Group Problem Solving
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Identify the problem
Analyze the problem
Determine criteria to judge solutions
Identify alternative solutions
Evaluate solutions & decide
Implement solution & assess it
Group
Activities
Group Presentation
Delivery methods
· Impromptu
- Delivered with only seconds or minutes of advance notice; little to no notes
· Scripted
· Extemporaneous
- Researched & planned ahead of time;
NOT scripted; run-throughs vary
- Delivered from complete written manuscript; require time to effectively prepare; usually reserved for important occasions
125 points
oct.11, 13, & 18
The rhetorical situation
The state in which you, your audience, and the occasion overlap.
· Must effectively provide
exigence

during the speech,

or reasons the message needs to be given.
audience analysis
situational analysis
audience analysis
Identify the general demographic features of your audience
Gauge the importance of those features to the situation
age
race
culture
sexual orientation
group membership
religion
gender
ethnicity
AVOID STEREOTYPING & MARGINALIZING!!
SURVEY YOUR AUDIENCE IF POSSIBLE
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
· Identify purpose of presentation and traits of the environment that could affect how the message is delivered.
length of speech?
size of audience?
purpose?
Where/when will it be presented?
other equipment needed?
other assignment criteria?
selecting a topic & Goal
· List topics you already have knowledge of, are interested in, or think are important
· Begin brainstorming/concept mapping
· Analyze audience/situation & choose topic
· Develop a general and specific goal
- GENERAL - the overall intent of the speech (i.e., to entertain, inform, or persuade)
- SPECIFIC - response speaker wants from audience
- WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW?
· Chronological order
· Topical order
· Logical reasons order
- points arranged in sequence or by steps in a process
- points structured using logical relationship between them
· Narrative order
- points arranged in story/series of stories that dramatizes thesis
- points structured as reasons to accept thesis as desirable or true
Example Thesis Statements
Thesis statement:
To maintain good health, let's discuss three proven methods for ridding our bodies of harmful toxins: staying hydrated, reducing animal foods, and eating natural whole foods.
topical
Thesis statement:
Today, I want to share my story as a person living with anorexia. I'll start by describing what a typical day is like for me as a recovering anorexic, then how I became anorexic, and finally, who saved my life.
Narrative
Thesis statement:

Donating to the United Way is appropriate because your one donation can be divided among many charities, you can stipulate which specific charities you wish to support, and a high percentage of your donation goes to charities.
logical
reasons
Thesis statement:

The four steps involved in developing a personal network are to analyze your current networking potential, to position yourself in places for opportunity, to advertise yourself, and to follow up on contacts.
chronological
outlining
· Start by first writing out thesis statement, including main points
I. Introduction
II. Body
A. Main point #1
1. Subpoint/first example
2. Subpoint/second example
B. Main point #2
1. Subpoint/first example
2. Subpoint/second example
III. Conclusion
· Fill out body of outline in full sentences, parallel structure
May go to sub-subpoints if necessary
Write in transitions/connectives between and within points
Last week:
this week:
· Group Communication
· Overview of Group Presentation
· Selecting a Topic & Org. Pattern
· Outlining & Connectives
· Effective Intros & Conclusions
· Overview of Commemorative Research Assignment
· Language Use & Nonverbal Communication
· Evaluating & Citing Sources
commemorative
research assignment
1. Outline -
full sentences (not script), clear supporting material, transitions between points, bibliography of sources
2. Commemorative Script -
word-for-word copy of speech
3. In-class delivery -
briefly describe credibility & significance of 2 sources used in speech
due in class on October 6th

Effective Oral Styles
Oral style
-
how we convey messages verbally
1.
Short sentences, familiar/specific language
2.
Use plural personal pronouns
·
We, us, our
- converse with your audience
3.
Descriptive words/phrases
· Colorful adjectives, rhetorical figures of speech
4.
Clear structural elements
· Help listeners conceptualize your framework
· Use
first, second, next, additionally, further, etc.
Linguistic Sensitivity
Some things to
AVOID
to help build credibility...
·
Generic language -

words that apply only to one sex, race, or other co-cultural group
·
Non-parallel language -

when terms are changed because of sex, race, etc.
— Marking:
adding group designators to a description
— Irrelevant Association:
unnecessarily emphasizing a relationship between two individuals; doesn't add to point
·
"Dirty" Humor/Profanity -
may be offensive to some listeners
Relating to your Audience
Speaking appropriately and ethically is the first step to relating your speech to your audience...
· Verbal Immediacy -
language used to decrease the psychological distance between your message and your audience
— Timeliness:
how audience can use information
now
— Proximity:
relating information to audience's space
— Personal Impact:
information can potentially have a serious effect on audience members
— Common Ground:
identify similar experiences with audience members; "we, us, our"; rhetorical questions
Vivid language
Paint a picture with your words to help audience understand the message.
· Sensory language -
use descriptive words to re-create what something looks, smells, sounds, tastes, or feels like
· Rhetorical figures of speech -
similes (like/as), metaphors (implied comparisons), analogies, antithesis; don't overuse
· "Word Play" -
alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, repetition, personification
· Paralanguage -
pitch, volume, rate, voice quality, intonation/inflection, vocalized pauses
body Movement
Nonverbal messages should match the verbal ones!
· Gestures -
emblems, illustrators, adaptors
· Facial Expressions & Eye Contact -
primary conveyer of emotions
· Posture -
shows attentiveness & confidence
· Body Orientation -
position in relation to others
· Body Movement -
motivated vs. unmotivated
· Proxemics -
how space/distance communicates a message
Interpreting Nonverbals
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nonverbal messages may mean different things to different people.
REMEMBER..
Consider the context.
Pay attention to the relationship between nonverbal and verbal messages.
Check your perception/interpretation.
Researching
· Good places to start?
Secondary Research -
information about your topic from other people
Primary Research -
collecting your own information on your topic from the real world
- Encyclopedias, Books, Articles, Newspapers, Statistical Sources, Biographies, Quotationaries, Websites, Government Documents
— Fieldwork observations, Surveys, Interviews, Original Artifacts/Documents, Experiments
Evaluating Sources
· VALIDITY
· ACCURACY
· RELIABILITY
— factual, truthful information
— unbiased, balanced discussion
— history of accuracy
1. Authority:
credentials or reputation of author or organization that published the material
2. Objectivity:
identify thesis/purpose of author(s)
3. Currency:
newer information = more accurate; check dates when published/written
4. Relevance:
if not related to your thesis/goal, don't use it
choosing material
Look for
EXAMPLES, STATISTICS, and QUOTATIONS
EXAMPLES
— specific instances that help illustrate or explain general statements
— Make sure examples relate to the point of the speech
statistics
— numerical facts to support a point
— Must be valid & reliable; cross-check with other sources!
quotations
— help explain what facts mean or put them into perspective
— Look for EXPERT opinions; avoid long quotations
— The specific information you pulled from the source that supports your point
Try to introduce your supporting material in different ways, not just "According to..."
commemorative speech examples
Last Week:
This week:
· Group work day
· Commemorative Practice
· Rehearsing & Delivering the Speech
· Intros & Conclusions
· Language Use
· Nonverbal Messages
Group work
Day

Rehearsing the speech
Rehearsing -
repeatedly practicing your speech aloud
...if you don't practice, it WILL show.
Commemorative research assignment
1.
Prepare speaking notes if necessary
OUTLINE
SPEAKING NOTES
Full sentences for main points
& supporting material
Quotes, facts, stats written out
Main ideas/key words used
Delivery & presentational cues
Transitions
Outline structure (I, II, III, A, B, a, b, 1, 2, etc.)
Written on notecards
BOTH:
Typed
rehearsing the speech
2.
Plan out presentational aids & technology
3.
The first practice session
· Record yourself or have others watch
· Try to only use your speaking notes
· Make the practice as similar to the speech situation as possible
· TIME YOUR SPEECH!! And whatever happens, keep going
· Laugh at your mistakes, then come up with a plan to resolve them for the next run-through
rehearsing the speech
4.
The second practice session
· Check recording for improvements
- Leave anything out?
- How was your delivery?
- Were your points easily understandable?
- Are the main point evenly divided?
- Presentational aids introduced smoothly?
· Make changes from first practice
5.
Additional practice sessions (Yes, you should run your speech more than twice!)
· TIME YOUR SPEECH!!
don't forget...
· Depending on audience feedback, you may need to adapt your speech during the presentation
· Remain calm during unexpected interruptions; try to keep the audience focused on your message
· Don't draw extra attention to your mistakes—making them is NORMAL, making them a bigger deal is not
Peer assessment overview
This week:
· Commemorative Speeches
Last week:
This week:
· Commemorative Speeches
· Finish Commemorative Speeches
· Introduction to Informative
· Overview of Informative Speech
Informative speaking
· Informative Speech -
designed to educate; to explain, or describe something to achieve shared meaning & increase audience understanding
Good informative speeches will be...
· Intellectually stimulating
· Relevant to the audience
· Creative & memorable
· Adapted for diverse learning styles
informative speaking
· Intellectually stimulating & creative
— presents a new take on a subject & is explained in a way to pique curiosity and interest
· Relevant to your audience
— provide listener relevance links by asking yourself how we benefit from each main point and stating why in your speech
· Memorable
— Since you are presenting new information, you need to help your audience remember what is most important (Figure 16.2, pg.247)
Adapt to diverse learning styles
· "Feeling" learners -
provide concrete, vivid images and examples
· "Watching" learners -
present visual aids & diagrams
· "Thinking" learners -
provide definitions, explanations, and statistics
· "Doing" learners -
encourage audience action during or after the speech
Methods of informing
· Descriptions -
create vivid mental picture by providing details about how something looks or feels
· Definitions -
explain the meaning of something by comparing/contrasting to other things, or by explaining its history or function
· Narrations -
provide story line with important people, a problem, an effect, and a solution to the problem
· Demonstrations -
show/explain how something is done or how something works
Informative speaking patterns
· Expository Speeches
· Process Speeches
— Provide carefully researched knowledge about complex topic
— Use various informative methods

EX:
Political, economic, social, religious, or ethical issues; Historical events; Theories, laws, or principles; Explanation of creative works (pg.251-253)
– Demonstrate how something is done, is made, or works
— Rely heavily on demonstration method of informing, but may use other methods
— Explain steps of how something occurred/occurs

EX:
How to Beatbox, How to Knit, How Cavities are Formed
Informative Speech
Assignment
Informative Listening
Activity
Informative Topic Find
(Group work)
· Come up with a list of 4 different process speech topics
· For each topic, identify how it can be broken down into 3-4 steps
Communication analysis example #1
"Michael Brown Black Angel" by Ti-Rock Moore
What is being
communicated?
- Police brutality
- Racism in America
- Loss of human life
Is the source credible?
- Moore is white female
civil rights activist
- Gallery specializes on
African American lives
Persuasive?
Controversy/Problems?
- White artist, Black community
- Dead on display
Should it be
communicated differently?
communication analysis example #2
"The Phelps' Training Secret"
What is being communicated?
- Eat Subway
Persuasive?
Is the source credible?
- Subway
- Phelps family
Controversy/Problems?
- Eat Subway to be like Michael Phelps
- Feed your children
Subway to be a good mother
- "And athletes everywhere..."
Should it be communicated
differently?
Last Week:
This Week:
- Introduction to Informative
- Assigned Informative Speech
- Group Presentations #1 & 2; Interpersonal Relationships & Interpersonal Communication
- Presentational Aids
Informative Research Assignment
· Outline
— Including full transitions, listener relevance links for each main point, and references page
— Outlines emailed to me will
NOT
be accepted
· In-class portion
— Explain credibility, dates, and info for
2 sources
— Explain effectiveness and use of
1 visual aid
DUe Thursday, November 3!!
Presentational aids
· Material used to ENHANCE a verbal message without overpowering it
People & objects -
physical samples, gestures/body movement, clothing
Diagram -
drawing of how the whole relates to its parts
Charts -
show relationship between steps in a process or parts of a unit
Models -
scaled-down/up
version of objects
presentational aids, cont'd
Graphs -
show relationship between numerical variables or how something progresses over time
Presentational aids, cont'd
Photographs & Maps
Audio & Audiovisual aids
Other sensory aids
Guidelines
· Consider the audience
CLOUD
· Limit reading
· Organize aids strategically
· Use consistent fonts & colors
· Describe what you use
· Structure them smoothly
into presentation
· REMEMBER: Technology is unpredictable!
Always have a "Plan B"
· Choose presentational aids
depending on need
informative speech examples
THIS WEEK:
· Finish Informative Speeches
· Introduction to Persuasion
· Assign Persuasive Speech
How are you normally persuaded to do something?
RHETORIC -
the "available means of persuasion"
ethos
pathos
logos
- logical arguments that support position
- appeal to emotions to gain support
- highlighting speaker credibility/character
· Target audience
- Uninformed, neutral, apathetic
· In favor? ...Call for action to be done
1. Divide into groups
2. Create list of 6 propositions
(2 per fact, value, & policy)
· STATEMENT OF REASONS
- main points are best-supported reasons (fact)
Prop.: I want my audience to believe that passing the proposed school tax levy is necessary.
I. Income will enable schools to restore vital programs
II. Income will enable schools to give teaches raises
III. Income will save district from state intervention
· COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES
- main points show benefits of proposed action compared to no action (value)
Prop.: I want my audience to believe that passing the school tax levy is better than not passing it.
persuasive patterns
- 1st main point is criteria audience should agree with before accepting 2nd point, the specific solution
Prop.: I want my audience to believe that passing school tax levy is good way to fund our schools.
I. Good school funding method must meet three criteria
A. Reestablishes dropped programs
B. Results in fair pay for teachers
C. Generates enough income to avoid state intervention
II. Passage of local school tax levy is best way to fund schools
A. Re-fund important programs
B. Gives teachers a raise
C. Generate enough income to maintain local control
persuasive patterns
· REFUTATIVE
- main points present opposing arguments and then challenges them
· PROBLEM-SOLUTION
- 1st main point explains nature of agreed-upon problem, 2nd point proposes solution
Prop.: The
current fiscal crisis
in the school district can be solved through a
local tax levy.
· PROBLEM-CAUSE-SOLUTION
- similar to Problem-Solution, but 2nd point explains causes before offering solution in 3rd point
persuasive patterns
· MOTIVATED SEQUENCE
- traditional intro, body, conclusion replaced with 5-step process
Prop.: I want my audience to vote in favor of the school tax levy on the November ballot.
I. (Attention)
Comparisons of worldwide test scores in math and science have refocused our attention on education.
II. (Need; Problem)
Shortage of money is resulting in cost-cutting that compromises our ability to teach basic academic subjects well.
III. (Satisfaction)
Proposed increase will allow for increased emphasis on academic need areas.
IV. (Visualization)
Think of contribution you will be making to the education of your children and to better our educational system
V. (Action)
Here are "Vote Yes" buttons that you can wear to show your support.
persuasive speech
assignment
This week:
· Logical Fallacies
· Persuasive Speech
Examples
· Appeal to logic of audience
— CLAIM... your argument
— SUPPORT... evidence to accept claim
— WARRANT... reasoning process that connects supports to the claim (sometimes implied)
C: I want Jim to believe that his car needs a tune-up.
S: I. The engine misses at slow speeds.
S: II. The car stalls at stoplights.
W: (Missing and stalling are major indicators of the need for a tune-up)
Straw Man
hasty generalization
— Weak or not enough supporting material
(post hoc, ergo propter hoc)
— sequence of events does not equal causation
— suggesting only 2 alternatives when others exist
— misrepresenting opposing position and arguing against it
— attacks/praises person rather than argument
Full transcript