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Cultural Overview of Paintings during American Period
Transcript of Cultural Overview of Paintings during American Period
dela Rosa was the first painter of note for the 20th century. He was noted for his realistic portraits, genre, and landscapes in subdued colors.
Fabian dela Rosa
Edades was heavily influenced by the work of Marcel Duchamp, who worked in a variety of styles and media but is probably best known for “The Fountain,” the urinal sculpture. He used these new techniques in “The Builders,” a response to the idealized vision of working class life characteristic of the Amorsolo School. Instead of happy laborers in sunny fields, Edades’ painting featured “distorted, naked working men, covered in sweat and grime,” showing how difficult their lives actually were.
Galo B. Ocampo
The first and among the few Filipino painters who have captured the different striking colors and character of the country's magnificent sunlight (best known for his illuminated landscapes)
Cultural Overview of Paintings during American Period
With the arrival of the new colonial power came a shift in art patronage – from the native ilustrados to the Americans. The new patrons, including the tourists and foreign investors, favored landscapes, still life, and genre themes that show the beauty of the land and its people. Portraits were still favored by the public officials, usually depicting them in dignified poses.
Young Filipina, oil on canvas, 34.2 x 27.9 cm, 1928, Paulino Que Collection
The sixties and the seventies became a period of
experimentation and exploration of new media, techniques, styles, forms of expression, and concepts in art
. It also marked the increased consciousness of visual artists to bring their art
closer to the people
through forms like murals, prints, and cartoons.
During the 1920’s, artists in the Philippines began to be influenced by
modern art trends
from Europe and America.
When the Americans took over government of the islands after the Spanish-American War, they brought with them a new source of patronage for Philippine artists as well as a demand for different subject matter.
- Painters of the early 1900s-notably Fernando Amorsolo, Fabien de la Rosa, and Jorge Pineda-produced romanticized landscapes, genre scenes, and portraits.
- In the late 1920s Victorio Edades, an American-trained painter, infused modernism into the Philippine art world. Many Philippine painters who were influenced by American and European modernism also experimented with it to
reflect Philippine realities
, such as Carlos Francisco, Arturo Luz, Anita Magsaysay-Ho, Vicente Manansala, and Hernando Ocampo.
Amorsolo and dela Rosa can be considered to be the masters of genre who dominated the Filipino art scene during the first half of the 20th century, and thereby assuming the role of the crucial link in the development of art from academism to modernism.
A glimpse of the rich body of works left behind by the two genre masters provides a good understanding of the rich heritage enjoyed by the contemporary Filipino artists, many of whom developed and adapted ideas from the early fathers.
Fabian de la Rosa is often considered the brightest name in Filipino painting and certainly the most important for the first quarter of the century.
Antipolo by Fernando Amorsolo, depicting Filipinos celebrating a town fiesta.
Detail from Fernando Amorsolo's 1945 Defence of a Filipina Woman's Honour, which is representative of Amorsolo's World War II-era paintings. Here, a Filipino man defends a woman, who is either his wife or daughter, from being raped by an unseen Japanese soldier. Note the Japanese military cap at the man's foot
By no sheer coincidence, Amorsolo's representational piece is also a depiction of a rice planting scene which consists all the quintessential elements of genre: idealized beauties, cheerful children, sunlight filtering through the thick tropical foliage, water reflecting extraordinary light; these were the subjects which won Amorsolo the uncontestable position as the chief proponent of genre as well as the title, Master of light. The tremendous commercial success enjoyed by Amorsolo enticed followers who did blind imitation of the master.
"Father of Modern Philippines Painting"
In 1934, Edades recruited two young dropouts of the U.P. School of Fine Arts, Carlos "Botong" V. Francisco and Galo B. Ocampo, to help him execute a mural. Together, they formed the Triumvirate of Modern Art in the country. They produced several collaborative murals such as
In his campaign for modernism, this is one of his paintings that shows his enhanced knowledge and skill in modern art. This artwork emphasized linear and structural composition above other pictorial elements, conveying the essence of men engaged in labor through the contortion of the bodies.
With his Brown Madonna, Filipinized Western canonical iconography with his Brown Madonna done in 1938. The painting has a distinctly Philippine landscape with a bahay kubo in the background, an earth colored skin Madonna wearing a patadyong, with anahaw leaves as a halo, and a brown-skinned child - a reinterpretation of the typical European-Western looking mother and child portrayals. His Flagellants series depict scenes of Lent, juxtaposing images of war and penitence. Ocampo studied at the U.P. School of Fine Arts. He commissioned to design the coat-of-arms of the Republic of the Philippines. He also served as Director of the National Museum.
This began the growth of mural painting in the Philippines.
Carlos "Botong" Francisco
Botong's unerring eye for composition, the lush tropical sense of color and an abiding faith in the folk values typified by the townspeople of Angono became the hallmark of his art.
Botong is known for his depiction of important Philippine historical events such as the
First Mass at Limasawa
and for his depiction of local activities such as
Francisco single-handedly revived the forgotten art of mural and remained its most distinguished practitioner for nearly three decades.
He was one of the first Filipino modernists along with Galo Ocampo and Victorio C. Edades who broke away from Fernando Amorsolo's romanticism of Philippine scenes.
In panels such as those that grace the City Hall of Manila, Francisco turned fragments of the historic past into vivid records of the legendary courage of the ancestors of his race.