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Ancient Egyptian Mathematics
Transcript of Ancient Egyptian Mathematics
A little bit of Egyptology
: a simple form of addition
7500 BC - 1st Egyptian Settlers
A Curious Problem on the Rhind Papyrus
Ancient Egyptian Mathematics
Math was mainly used by the Pharaohs surveyors.
Decimal numeric system developed
Wrote on papyruses
Had an idea of fractions, linear and quadratic equations, and the Pythagorean Theorem
Practical problems in trade and the market led to use of fractions
Comparing Egyptian math to Babylonian math
Heads of Wheat
What We Will Cover
Who were the Ancient Egyptians?
What is the history of Egyptian math?
What did Egyptian numbers look like?
How did Egyptians do arithmetic?
An Introduction to the History of Mathematics (Howard Eves)
Video Clips from: YouTube "Ancient Egypt: Crash Course World History #4"
3200 BC - Hieroglyphics
2650 BC - Step Pyramid of Djoser
Doubling & Halving
Ex. 11 x 35
Ex. 1075 / 25
Eye of Horus
R = 'part'
1/2 = right side of the eye
1/4 = the pupil
1/8 = the eyebrow
1/16 = left side of the eye
1/32 = the curved tail
1/64 = the teardrop
Egyptian Pharaohs needed a system to communicate & keep records
on temple & tomb walls & papyrus
Hieratic script was developed around the same time as the hieroglyphic script & was used in parallel with it for everyday purposes such as keeping records, accounts & writing letters
used until AD400
Ancient Egyptians believed that if their bodies were mummified & protected in a pyramid they would live forever in the afterlife
burial chambers were underground hidden in a maze of tunnels
climate was wetter & the valley more green
hunters & gatherers
as the climate became more arid and became a desert, Egyptians migrated towards the Nile to farm along its banks
ruled for 3000 years by Kings, called Pharaohs
crafted intricate artwork, built great stone monuments & developed the world's 1st national government
created 1st basic forms of arithmetic, a 365 day calendar & types of writing, which left behind a record of their world
believed in over 1500 deities - Gods & Godesses
Osiris & Isis
Ra - the Sun God
tombs contained anything needed in the afterlife: furniture, jewelery, cosmetics...
...even a boat!
What is the number represented by these Egyptian symbols?
Your turn! Find a partner...
Match the Egyptian numerals to the number
The basics of Egyptian number symbols
Ancient Egyptian Life - Highlights
Egypt was a thriving country!
agriculture was the main economic activity & harvests were richer than in other countries
allowed for a greater proportion of urban dwellers & diverse forms of production
Main crops: wheat, barley, beans, onions, cucumber, fig, dates, grapes, melons & lettuce
Main exports: gold & other minerals, papyrus, linen & grain
No $! - barter system
workers paid in wheat & barley
2584 BC - 2540 BC - Great Pyramids @ Giza
built for Pharoahs Khufu, Khafre & Menkaure
Great Pyramid is the largest
largest @ 146 m or 481 feet
oldest & last standing of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World
1322 BC - King Tutankhamen
In life, the boats enabled the Pharaoh to travel rapidly up & down the Nile in a powerful display of wealth & military strength
Egyptian kings also expected to be kings in the afterlife, the boats would be useful tools.
The role of the Nile River