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Mater et Magistra

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Luke Carroll

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of Mater et Magistra

Enforcing Catholic Social teaching
New Social Concerns
Reconstruction of Catholic Social Teaching
Power of Public Authority
"[It is] within the power of the public authority...to reduce imbalances which may exist...but it must never be exerted to the extent of depriving the individual citizen of his freedom of action." (n. 54-55)
Just Workplace
"Justice is to be observed not only in the distribution of wealth, but also in regard o the conditions in which mearn are engaged in producting this wealth" (n. 82)
Property
Wages must increase so that workers are able to save more and acquire property of their own, demanded by human dignity. (n.112 & 114)
Agriculture
The rural population is decreasing. People are moving from rural areas to cities in search of better paying jobs in nearly every part of the world. Farming is a depressed occupation. (n. 123)
Aid to Poor Areas
Emergency aid will not go far enough. Richer countries must help fully develop poorer areas to point of self-sustainability. (n. 163)
The World's Population
While some have reported there to be an eminent problem of population growth, a problem does not seem to exist. (n. 185-8)
Global Cooperation
"Nations, therefore must work with each other for their mutual development and perfection." (n. 202)
The way it should be
"Individual human beings are the foundation, the cause and the end of every social institution." (n. 219)
Putting it to work
The three stages of praxis are: 1) "one reviews the concrete situation", 2) "one forms a judgement on it in the light of these same principles", 3) "one decides what in the circumstances can and should be done to implement these principles." (n. 236)
Incomplete Philosophies
"Separated from God a man is but a monster, in himself and toward others; for the right ordering of human society presupposes the right ordering of man's conscience with God, who is Himself the source of all justice, truth, and love." (n. 215)
Who: Pope John XXIII
What:
Mater et Magistra
Where: Rome
When: May 15, 1961
Why: 1. To Congratulate Leo XIII on
Rerum Novarum,
2. To address new political, social, economic developments, 3. To affirm the Catholic Church as Teacher, 4. To further analyze new social concerns, i.e. agriculture and developing countries, 5. To provide a philosophy of reconstruction (DeBerri, 53)
Ghost Writers:
Cardinal Bea & Msgrs. Pietro Pavan, Agostino Ferrari Toniolo, & Sante Quadri (Himes, 195)
Mater et Magistra
To Whom: Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Local Ordinaries, Clergy, and Faithful of the entire Catholic World
The Church is "Mother and Teacher of all nations" (n. 1)
"Small wonder, then, that the Catholic Church, in imitation of Christ and in fulfillment of His commandment, relies not merely upon her teaching to hold aloft the torch of charity, but also upon her own widespread example." (n. 6)
In Gratulatione
"An outstanding instance of this social teaching and action carried on by the Church throughout the ages is undoubtedly that magnificent encyclical on the christianizing of the conditions of the working classes,
Rerum Novarum
, published seventy years ago by our Predecessor, Leo XIII." (n. 7)
"In this, Leo XIII, showed his complete mastery of the situation....[he] had no hesitation in proclaiming and defending the legitimate right of the workers" (n. 16)
Rerum Novarum
1) Work as human activity; 2)Private ownership of property; 3) State must promote common good through all available means; 4) Workers have a right to enter and form associations with fellow workers; 5) Workers and employers must maintain solidarity with one another in 'Christian Brotherhood" (n.18-23)
"Forty years after...Pius XI published his own encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno." (n. 27)
Quadragesimo Anno
1) Confirmed the "right and duty of the Catholic Church to work for an equitable solution of the pressing problems of society..."(n. 28); 2) Clarified points of Church teaching; 3) Reformulate Christian social thought; 4) Reaffirmed private properties origin in natural law; 5) condemned the unjust practices regarding the wage system (n.28-31)
Economic interests must seek the Common Good


Man's aim must also be toward the Common Good
(n. 38)
"For all the he did to render more precise the Christian definition of social rights and duties, no small recognition is due to Our late Predecessor, Pius XII." (n. 41)
Broadcast Messages
1) The Church has the power to judge whether or not a social system is in accord to the "unchangeable order of God." (n. 41)
2) Provided further directive of moral principles on three fundamental vaules of life:
Material goods: right to private possession of material goods
Work: man's work is both a duty and a right
Family: private property plays an integral role in family life
families have a right to migrate (n.43-45)
New Developments
Science, Technology, Economics:
1) Developments in nuclear energy first in war then peace, 2) Chemistry and synthetic materials, 3) Automation in industry and public services, 4) Faster transportation and space conquest (n. 47)
Social:
1) Development of Social Insurance, 2) Development of Social Security Systems in more advanced societies, 3) Unions possess a more astute awareness of major social and economic problems, 4) Improvement in education, 5) Wider distribution of essential commodities, 6) Improvements in education and simultaneous breakdown of class barriers, 7) Greater interest in world affairs (n. 48)
Political:
1) Greater number of citizens taking part in the political process, 2) Public authorities are getting involved in social and economic matters, 3) Breakaway from Colonialism, 4) Nations are becoming more interdependent, 5) Greater emphasis on the Common Good. (n. 49)
Problems
1) Rise in biological warfare
Problems
1) Lack of balance between agriculture, industry, and public service (n. 48)
2) Not all areas are developing at the same rate (n.48)
3) Marked disparity in economic wealth (n. 48)
2) Greater production of non-biodegradebale substances leading to an increase in solid waste and pollution
Mater et Magistra
Christianity and Social Progress
In the economic order, "first place must be given to the personal initiative of private citizens." (n. 50)
"Civil power must have a hand in the economy." (n. 51)
The guiding principle of the state must be that of "subsidiary function." (n. 53)
Of which, "the true aim of all social activity should be to help members of the social body, but never to destroy or absorb them." (n. 53)
Common Good
"There can be no such thing as a well-ordered and prosperous society unless individual citizens and the State co-operate" (n. 56)
"A sane view of the common good must be present and operative in men invested with public authority." (n. 65)
Problems:
1) Development in the social life pulls away from family life (n. 59)
2) An increase in the amount of restrictive laws preventing "freedom of action" (n. 62)
Just Wage
"We are filled with an overwhelming sadness when we contemplate the sorry spectacle of millions of worker in many lands and entire continents condemned through the inadequacy of their wages to live with their families in utterly sub-human conditions." (n. 68)
Considerations for a just wage
1) "A wage which allows them to live a truly human life and to fulfill their family obligations in a worthy manner.", 2) contribution to the economic effort, 3) the financial state of the company, 3) general good of the particular country, especially the repercussions on the overall employment, 4) the common good of all nations (n.71)
"[It] must be determined in accordance with justice and equity" (n. 71)
Considerations for the Common Good
Nationally

1) employing the most people possible, 2) care to prevent classes in the workplace, 3) wage/price equilibrium, 4) goods and services accessible to the common worker, 5) restriction of inequalities in the economy, 6) balance between economic expansion and social service development, 7) adjusted economy to scientific/technological progress, 8) provisions for a better life for future peoples (n. 79)


Internationally

1) avoidance of unfair competition between countries, 2) mutual collaboration and good will, 3) development of less advanced communities (n. 80)
Craftsmen, family farms and co-operatives are to be "safeguarded and encouraged" and are "fully entitled to watchful measures of the state"(n. 85 & 89)
Workers must have an active role in the company where they work that reflects understanding, appreciation, and good will on both sides. (n. 92)
Modern scientific and technological advances have seen a rise in the number of people joining worker associations which are "deserving of Our Praise" (n. 101)
"The right of private ownership of goods...has permanent validity." (n. 109)
" Private ownership must be considered as a guarantee of the essential freedom of the individual, and at the same time an indispensable element in a true social order." (n. 111)
The state should "pursue an economic and social policy which facilitates the widest possible distribution of private property in terms of durable consumer goods, houses, land, tools and equipment." (n. 114)
Economic enterprises by the state must be entrusted to men of good will. (n. 118)
There will always remain a place for Christian Charity. (n. 120)
A personal concern for John XXIII (Himes, 201)
Considerable thought must be given to develop rural areas. (n. 127)
Agriculture must be given equals means to develop and in doing so will produce a balanced economy. (n. 128)
The common good requires that public authorities...take cognizance of the peculiar difficulties of farmer...which find it harder to [obtain] capital necessary to increase returns. (n. 133)
A special credit system is needed for farmers including two forms of insurance: one for produce and one for the family. (n. 134)
A means of price protection must be established. (n. 137)
A family farm is the optimal type of farming venture. (n. 142)
Farming carries a dignity all its own. (n. 145)
"Justice and equity demand that public authority try to eliminate or reduce such imbalances." (n. 150)
"Probably the most difficult problem today concerns the relationship between political communities that are economically advanced and those in the process of development." (n. 157)
Church's teaching on aid to poor areas
1) Poorer nations must learn for the experience of more developed nations (n. 167); 2) equal distribution of goods (n. 168); 3) richer nations must respect the culture of the poorer areas and not take advantage of them creating a new form of colonialism (n. 170-2); 4) Technical and financial aid must be given freely (n. 173)
"[The Church] brings about the rebirth, the resurrection, of each individual in Christ," resulting in the freedom of each individual. (n. 181)
God will provide adequate means, through science, technology, and nature, to support the world's population. (n. 189)
The problems which face poorer nations are however very real and are often caused by a lack of solidarity among nations. (n. 190)
Solutions to the Problem
No solution is acceptable which does violence to man's dignity. (n. 191)
Solutions must consider values that uplift man's dignity and the immense worth of human life. (n. 193)
Human life is sacred and all must recognize that fact. (n. 194)
Parents must execute their right to educate their children in the Christian Faith and provide a means for their religious and cultural formation. They must "instill in them an unshakable confidence in Divine Providence." (n. 195)
"[Nature] must be brought into the service of human life." (n. 197)
"The progress of science and technology in every aspect of life has led...[to] increased relationships between nations, and made [them] more dependent on one another." (n. 200)
However, "men, and consequently States, are in mortal fear of each other," disrupting human society and caused by "the presence of ideological differences." (n. 203-205)
To resolve conflict
A respect for the moral order, which exists in God, and man, who is endowed with reason and freedom, is needed. (n. 207-208)
A sincere faith in God is needed. (n. 209)
While several new philosophies are emerging, they are failing because "these ideologies do not take into account the whole man, nor even his inmost part." "They fail to take account of that deep-rooted sense of religion." (n. 213)
Modern philosophies are trying to construct a solid and temporal order apart from God, thus, they will fail. (n. 217)
"Catholic social doctrine is an integral part of the Christian conception of life." (n. 222)
Catholic social teaching should be taught as daily curriculum in Catholic schools of every kind, added to religious instruction programs of parishes, and spread by every modern means at our disposal. (n. 223)
The Lay Apostolate "has an important role to play in social education." (n. 233)
Christian life demands a "spirit of moderation and sacrifice," contrary to the spirit of "hedonism" found in today's society. (n. 234-5)
Catholics who disagree amongst themselves must not loose respect for one another. (n. 238)
Catholics should do nothing to compromise their religion but keep in mind that others might not share the same faith. (n. 239)
Catholics must remain faithful to the Church's teachings, remembering that "the Church has the right and obligation not merely to guard ethical and religious principles, but also to declare its authoritative judgement in the matter of putting these principles into practice." (n. 239 & 241)
Conclusion
Humanity is "in danger of forgetting and of destroying [itself]." (n. 242)
"Scientific and technical progress and the resultant material well-being are good things." (n. 246)
Man, in accord with religious, moral and physical well-being, must honor the Sabbath Day. He has a right to "rest a while from, work, and indeed a need to do so." (n. 250-1)
Man should develop and perfect himself, both physically and spiritually, through his daily work. (n. 255-6)
Man is to be "deeply conscious of the dignity, the nobility, which is theirs through being grafted on to Christ as shoots on a vine," thus making "man's work exalted and ennobled-so highly exalted that it leads to his own personal perfection of soul, and helps to extend to others the fruits of Redemption, all over the world." (n. 259)
It can be summed up with two distinctions
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