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Social Stratification Presentation
Transcript of Social Stratification Presentation
Income is an important economic inequality dimension, and is one component of a person's wealth, which is an important source of power and prestige.
The richest 5% of Canadians have wealth exceeding a value of $600 000.
They hold the most power and prestige due to their wealth and occupations.
The poorest 5% have a negative wealth valued at $5700.
As well, family ancestry, ethnicity, and gender affect one's social standing. Functions of Social Stratification What Is Social Stratification? Social stratification is a system by which society places groups of people in a hierarchy.
It is a trait of society that is not based on individual differences.
It is an adoptive trait: passed on from one generation to the next.
It is supported by cultural ideologies which widely deem social inequality as fair and just.
It can be broken down into two sub-systems: Social Classes In Canada Poverty in Canada Applying Social Stratification Social Stratification Caste Systems Form of social stratification based solely on birth. This allows for little to no social mobility. Affects one's entire life, from marriage to occupation choices. This system is commonly found in agrarian societies Caste is apart of everyday life.
Families in each caste perform a single occupation.
Caste also dictates that people marry within their ranking.
People from higher rankings do not "mix" with those of the lower. This allows for some social mobility. Social stratification based on individual achievement and personal merit. This system is commonly found in industrial and post-industrial societies. Form of social stratification based on both aspects of birth and meritocracy. Class Systems Example: India Status Consistency Status consistency is the "degree of uniformity in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality."
-Society: the Basics, 5th Canadian Edition (Page 193) Caste systems have high status consistency.
limited social mobility makes people of the same caste equal in wealth and power.
Class systems have low status consistency.
Greater social mobility allows people of the same class to acquire and maintain differing levels of wealth and power. "Waiting for the World to Change" - John Mayer The Structural-Functional Approach Views social stratification as playing a crucial role in society's operation.
This approach is based on the ideas of Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore.
Davis-Moore Thesis: social stratification is a system whose unequal benefits helps with the cohesive operation of society.
In other words: the more important an occupation is, the more rewards a society attaches to it, which boosts economic production. Claims that stratification divides societies into classes, which benefits some at the expense of others.
This approach is based on the ideas of Karl Marx and Max Weber.
Marx believed that capitalism places economic productivity under capitalist ownership, which exploits the proletarians, causing social conflict.
Weber viewed stratification as having 3 dimensions: economic class, status, and power.
Since modern societies had low status consistency, Weber characterized stratification as a multi-dimensional ranking of socio-economic status: a blended ranking based on various dimensions of inequality. The Social-Conflict Approach The Symbolic-Interaction Approach Views social stratification as a force that guides people's interactions on a daily basis.
Social position is viewed as a measure of self-worth and sees inequality as being justified by personal differences.
People interact primarily with those of their own social standing.
The products we consume are a reflection of our social position.
Conspicuous consumption: buying/using products to make apparent one's social position. Examples: Celebrities Upper Class Working Class Lower Class Middle Class Makes up 20% of the population.
Most people who belong to this class lack financial security due to their low income.
Many live below the poverty line and often do not have a fully completed high school education. Lower Class Makes up 30-35% of the population.
Most people belonging to this class do blue-collar work.
Approximately 1/3 of working class citizens attend post secondary.
Average annual income: $25 000 to $55 000. Working Class: Makes up 40-45% of the population.
People belonging to this class are significantly wealthy.
This class is broken down into the upper-middle class and the average-middle class.
The latter have less prestige than the upper-middle class.
Often have white-collar occupations.
Middle-class people attend post-secondary and graduate with degrees. Middle Class: Composed of 5% of the Canadian population.
Annual yearly income: $135 300+
This class is divided into two subclasses: the upper-upper class and the lower-upper class.
Lower-upper class are also known as the "working rich", as their wealth is earned, not inherited.
The upper-upper class make up 1% of the population, as they are the financial elite and their wealth is primarily inherited. Upper Class: Who are some examples of upper-class citizens? The Differences Class Makes HEALTH VALUES Those of inherited wealth, known as the "old rich" tend to have family-oriented ties and values.
The "new rich", those who have earned their wealth, such as celebrities, tend to value how others perceive their social standing through the process of conspicuous consumption. Taylor Swift Example: Kim Kardashian POLITICS Is Canada a caste or class system? Why? Richer people tend to support the Conservative or Liberal Parties, which are in favor of issues such as abortion and gay rights.
People with lower class standing tend to be more supportive of economic liberals who advocate for government social programs. Children are born into poor families are more likely to die from disease, neglect, accidents, or violence.
Those born into wealthier families are likely to live longer, healthier, and better lives. Social Mobility Social mobility in Canada is high and quite common, which is characteristic for high-income countries.
Only small changes occur between generations, as large jumps in social standing is uncommon. Who Are the Poor? 9.6% of the Canadian population is poor.
Poverty is primarily focused on children and the elderly in recent years.
Poverty rates are much higher for visible minorities compared to the national average, and much worse for aboriginals, as 1/3 aboriginals are poor.
Of those living in poverty, 54% are female and 46% are male.
Feminization of Poverty: the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor.
Women stay in poverty longer than men by 4-5 years.
Poverty rates are higher in urban areas, especially in Vancouver and Toronto. Explanations of Poverty Blame Individuals: the poor are responsible for their own poverty.
Viewed that society provides many opportunities that the poor lack little skill to take hold of.
Oscar Lewis' “Culture of poverty” term, which helped to explain this theory.
Blame society: Argued by William Julius Wilson that society is to blame for poverty.
Due to lack of work and opportunities, the poor can not help but remain poor.
Wilson further argued that it is irrational for the poor to bring upon themselves suffering. Now we see everything that's going wrong
With the world and those who lead it
We just feel like we don't have the means
To rise above and beat it
So we keep waiting
Waiting on the world to change
We keep on waiting
Waiting on the world to change
It's hard to beat the system
When we're standing at a distance
So we keep waiting
Waiting on the world to change Overview: Defining Social Stratification and its different systems.
The functions of Social Stratification
Inequality in Canada
Canada's social classes and their affect on one's values, political thoughts, and health.
Poverty in Canada
Applying Social Stratification: "Waiting For the World to Change" - John Mayer The division among blue collar and white collar