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Jordan Ronquillo

on 17 October 2012

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NEED Enterprise
Architecture is the process that interweaves business and IT together “EA is a discipline that helps the Enterprise define , develop and exploit the boundaryless information flow capabilities in order to achieve the Enterprise’s Strategic Intent.” OBJECTIVES WHY DO YOU an Enterprise Architecture? To support the business by providing the fundamental technology and process structure for an IT strategy To achieve the right balance between IT efficiency and business innovation A more efficient IT operation Better return on existing investment, reduced risk for future investment Faster, simpler, and cheaper procurement NEED WHY DO YOU a Framework? Speed up and simplify architecture development Ensure more complete coverage of the designed solution Architecture selected allows for future growth T Baseline Architecture and Target Architecture Business
Modeling Activity Models Use-Case Models Class Models Node Connectivity Diagram Information Exchange
Matrix - also called Business Process Models - associated with the enterprise's business activities (internal or external changes) - activities performed in a business process, and the ICOMs of those activities - can be annotated with explicit statements of business rules, which represent relationships among the ICOMs - can describe either business processes or systems functions - describes the business processes of an enterprise in terms of use-cases and actors corresponding to business processes and organizational participants (people, organizations, etc.) - similar to logical data models. - static information and relationships between information. - represent business domain entities or systems implementation classes - A business domain model represents key business information (domain classes), their characteristics (attributes), their behaviors (methods or operations), and relationships (often referred to as multiplicity, describing how many classes typically participate in the relationship), and cardinality (describes required or optional participation in the relationship). UML Business Class Diagram, Trade Class Model (Commercial View) - describes the business locations (nodes), the "needlines" between them, and the characteristics of the information exchanged - can be described at three levels: conceptual, logical, and physical. - it documents the information exchange requirements for an enterprise architecture. - express the relationships across three basic entities (activities, business nodes and their elements, and information flow), and focus on characteristics of the information exchange, such as performance and security - they identify who exchanges what information with whom, why the information is necessary, and in what manner G ANALYSIS A P GAP ANALYSIS MATRIX Add to the Target Architecture axis a final column labeled "Eliminated Services." If a function is available in both the Baseline and Target Architectures, record this with "Included" at the intersecting cell. Where a function from the Baseline Architecture is missing in the Target Architecture (in the example, "broadcast services" and "shared screen services"), each must be reviewed. If it was correctly eliminated, mark it as such in the appropriate "Eliminated Services" cell. If it was not, you have uncovered an accidental omission in your new architecture that must be addressed by reinstating the function in the next iteration of the design - mark it as such in the appropriate "Eliminated Services" cell. ...mark it at the intersection with the "New" row, as a gap that needs to be filled, either by developing or procuring the function. When the exercise is complete, anything under "Eliminated Services" or "New Services" is a gap, which should either be explained as correctly eliminated, or marked as to be addressed by reinstating or developing/procuring the function. The Inputs in Business Architecture are: INPUTS Request for Architecture Work - Statement of work title, Project request and background, Project description and scope, Architecture vision, Managerial Approach etc. Approved Statement of Architecture Work - Organization sponsors, Organization's mission statement, Business goals (and changes), Strategic plans, Budget information, financial constraints, Current architecture/IT system description. Refined statements of business goals and strategic drivers Architecture principles - Business, Data, Application and Technology principles Enterprise Continuum Architecture Vision/Business Scenario - Problem description, Detailed objectives, Environment and process models, Actors and their roles and responsibilities, resulting model. - Baseline and Target Architecture of Business, Data, Application and Technology. STEPS 1. Develop Baseline Business Architecture Description 2. Identify Reference Models, Viewpoints, and Tools ii. Select relevant Business Architecture viewpoints i. Select relevant Business Architecture resources iii. Identify appropriate tools and techniques to be used for capture, modeling, and analysis, in association with the selected viewpoints. 3. Create Architecture Model(s) i. For each viewpoint, create the model for the specific view required, using the selected tool or method. ii. Assure that all stakeholder concerns are covered. If they are not, create new models to address concerns not covered, or augment existing models. Business scenarios are a useful technique to discover and document business requirements, and may be used iteratively. Other techniques may be used, if required. Create models of the following: a. Organization structure: document the organization structure, identifying business locations and relating them to organizational units. b. Business goals and objectives: document business goals and objectives for each organizational unit. c. Business functions: identify and define business functions. This is a detailed, recursive step involving successive decomposition of major functional areas into sub-functions. d. Business services: the services that each enterprise unit provides to its customers, both internally and externally.. e. Business processes, including measures and deliverables. g. Business data model h. Correlation of organization and functions: relate business functions to organizational units in the form of a matrix report. f. Business roles, including development and modification of skills requirements. iii. Information requirements: identify for each business function when, where, how often, and by whom the function is performed; what information is used to perform it, and its source(s); and what opportunities exist for improvements. Include information that needs to be created, retrieved, updated, and deleted. iv. Perform trade-off analysis to resolve conflicts (if any) among the different views. v. Validate that the models support the principles, objectives, and constraints. vi. Note changes to the viewpoint represented in the selected models from the Architecture Continuum, and document. vii. Test architecture models for completeness against requirements. 4. Select Business Architecture Building Blocks i. Identify required building blocks and check against existing library of building blocks, re-using as appropriate. ii. Where necessary, define new Business Architecture Building Blocks. 5. Conduct Formal Checkpoint Review of Architecture Model and Building Blocks with Stakeholders 6. Review Non-Functional (Qualitative) Criteria (e.g., performance, costs, volumes) 7. Complete Business Architecture i. Select standards for each of the Architecture Building Blocks, re-using as much as possible from the reference models ii. Fully document each Architecture Building Block. iii. Final cross-check of overall architecture against business goals. Document rationale for building block decisions in the architecture document. iv. Document final requirements traceability report. v. Document final mapping of the architecture within the Architecture Continuum. From the selected Architecture Building Blocks, identify those that might be re-used (working practices, roles, business relationships, job descriptions, etc.), and publish via the architecture repository. vi. Document rationale for building block decisions in the Business Architecture description document. vii. Prepare the Business Architecture Report, comprising some or all of: - A business footprint (a high-level description of the people and locations involved with key business functions) - A detailed description of business functions and their information needs - A management footprint (showing span of control and accountability) - Standards, rules, and guidelines showing working practices, legislation, financial measures, etc. - A skills matrix and set of job descriptions If appropriate, use reports and/or graphics generated by modeling tools to demonstrate key views of the architecture. Route the Business Architecture document for review by relevant stakeholders, and incorporate feedback. viii. Checkpoint: check the original motivation for the architecture project and the Statement of Architecture Work against the proposed Business Architecture, asking if it is fit for the purpose of supporting subsequent work in the other architecture domains. 8. Perform Gap Analysis and Create Report i. Create gap matrix, as described in Gap Analysis . ii. Identify building blocks to be carried over, classifying as either changed or unchanged. iii. Identify eliminated building blocks. vi. Identify new building blocks. v. Identify gaps and classify as those that should be developed and those that should be procured. OUTPUTS The outputs of Phase B are: Statement of Architecture Work, updated if necessary Validated business principles business goals, and strategic drivers Target Business Architecture, including : - Organization structure - identifying business locations and relating them to organizational units - Business goals and objectives - for the enterprise and each organizational unit - Business functions - a detailed, recursive step involving successive decomposition of major functional areas into sub-functions - Business services - the services that the enterprise and each enterprise unit provides to its customers, both internally and externally - Business processes, including measures and deliverables - Business roles, including development and modification of skills requirements - Business data model - Correlation of organization and functions - relate business functions to organizational units in the form of a matrix report Baseline Business Architecture, if appropriate Views corresponding to the selected viewpoints addressing key stakeholder concerns Gap analysis results Technical requirements - identifying, categorizing, and prioritizing the implications for work in the remaining architecture domains Business Architecture Report Updated business requirements To describe the Baseline and Target Business Architecture To analyze the gaps between the Baseline and Target Business Architectures To select the relevant architecture viewpoints that will enable the architect to demonstrate how the stakeholder concerns are addressed in the Business Architecture T O G A F H D N R R A V E E Z N E R Y S E W H L T Presented by A G U D A H The Open Group Gartner Group, Philip Allega O F A G he pen roup rchitecture ramework Potential sources of gaps : People gaps Process gaps Tools gaps Information gaps Measurement gaps Financial gaps Facilities gaps Add to the Baseline Architecture axis a final row labeled "New Services" If a function from the Target Architecture cannot be found in the Baseline Architecture For example: Mailing List Services is a function not found... ...here in the Baseline Architecture column, Setting-up your matrix List down your baseline architecture and put it in the first column of your matrix Overview of Enterprise Architecture and TOGAF Enables you to design, evaluate, and build the right architecture for your organization The key is the Architecture Development Method (ADM) - a reliable, proven method for developing an IT enterprise architecture that meets the needs of your business Highlights services and/or functions that have been accidentally left out, deliberately eliminated, or are yet to be developed or procured. List down your target architecture and put it in the first row of your matrix Enterprise Architecture WHY Matters in the Government “The fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution.” ANSI/IEEE Std 1471-2000 Initiatives for seamless automation of government services lack the cross-agency coordination Lack  of  coherent  strategy  is  often  cited  as  the  primary  reason  for  under‐development  of  e‐-government 3 Main Parts of TOGAF The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM), which explains how to derive an organization-specific enterprise architecture that addresses business requirements. The "virtual repository" of all the architecture assets - models, patterns, architecture descriptions, etc. - that exist both within the enterprise and in the IT industry at large, which the enterprise considers itself to have available for the development of architectures. The TOGAF Resource Base, which is a set of resources to help the architect in the use of the ADM. Four architectures that TOGAF is designed to support BUSINESS PROCESS ARCHITECTURE this kind of architecture provides a blueprint for the individual application systems to be deployed, their interactions, and their relationships to the core business processes of the organization. this describes the logical software and hardware capabilities that are required to support the deployment of business, data, and application services. This includes IT infrastructure, middleware, networks, communications, processing, standards, etc. this describes the structure of an organization's logical and physical data assets and data management resources. this defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes. DATA ARCHITECTURE APPLICATIONS ARCHITECTURE Technology Architecture Baseline Architecture Target Architecture Formal documentation of EXISTING systems Formal documentation of FUTURE/ENVISIONED systems "EA is an effective strategic planning tool for governments by facilitating creation of linkages and improving interoperability among government agencies, benefiting both internal and external processes as well as improved public service to the citizens." United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs ACTIVITY List down your agency's Baseline Architecture and envision (or list down, if you already have) your agency's Target Architecture. We will use your list for our next activity. ACTIVITY Create a Gap Analysis Matrix based on the list you created from the first activity. Homework Generate an output (does not need to be thorough) based on your agency's inputs.

Use the steps described. SYSTEMS are not limited to computer applications, softwares and such. You can also use models, workforce, etc.
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