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Unit 3: A Country with a Future: 1765 - 1823
Transcript of Unit 3: A Country with a Future: 1765 - 1823
Economics: Transition to Monoculture
The Republic of Haiti
French and Spanish alliance - at war against Great Britain
1797: Ralph Abercromby attack to island
Spain in crisis over Napoleonic invasion
First and Second Constitutional Periods
Increasing Population: New and Old
Transition to monoculture
Statement of Inquiry: A sense of identity and differences in ideologies may provoke changes to deal with inequalities.
Effects of Haitian Revolution
1791 - 1804: Republic of Haiti
Troops were sent from Puerto Rico (including local members) to fight the rebels.
Fear among the slave owners and of the government of the possibility of rebellions
Long range effects:
Haiti 's ruin and the emigration of hacendados helped export agriculture in the Spanish islands
International demand of sugar and coffee will rise as Haiti 's production is ruined -
Cuba makes great investments in sugar
P.R. - refugees will come and initially the coffee cultivation will increase especially in the mountains
Toussaint L' Ouverture - Leader of the Haitian Revolution
British Attack of 1797
1790s: European Wars reach the Atlantic world: Spain 's alliance with France against Great Britain - British fleet attacks
General Ralph Abercromby
Governor Brigadier Ramon de Castro suspected they were coming after invading Trinidad
Ten weeks - siege of the walled city
The costly defenses of San Juan resisted
Local militias - disciplined, and trained - showed their courage
Fought them in Rio Piedras - Puente de Martin Peña (Bridge) and in Loiza
Farmers, artisans, laborers,aggregates and fishermen.
British and Hessian mercenary troops left
"En el Puente de Martin Peña mataron a Pepe Díaz, el soldado mas valiente que el rey de España tenía"
Toa Alta militia
José and Francisco Díaz - sargeants
"Night of April 30 - Bishop and townswomen led a prayer procession - with torches"
Spanish Crisis : 1808
Napoleon Bonaparte takes the Spanish throne from the legitimate Spanish kings - Charles IV and Ferdinand VII and gives it to his brother José Bonaparte.
Spaniards rebel and start a guerrilla type of war against the French invading army first lead by the Junta Suprema in Sevilla who will govern in the name of Ferdinand VII
Emissaries from both the Junta Suprema and Jose Bonaparte will come to America and ask for the loyalty of the colonies.
Political Crisis in America: colonies belonged to the Monarch of Castilla - if he is absent - - Who ruled the colonies?
Governor of PR - Toribio Montes - - July 1808 - emmisaries of the Junta came for support:
Governor, Bishop Arizmendi, leading citizens and military will support the Junta
Junta Suprema convokes the Courts or national parliament: calling for representatives of all the provinces of Spain and all the colonies
Five municipalities in PR - chose candidates and wrote instructions on their needs (San Juan, San German, Aguada, Arecibo y Coamo)
Electoral Board chose Ramón Power y Giralt as "diputado a Cortes"
Election of Ramón Power y Giralt
Open manifestation of Patriotism by the criollo upper classes - fear of official censorship had kept them silent before
Crisis in Spain, liberal attitude of the Junta Suprema - - their philosophy of political integration of the colonies - - gave criollos confidence
Juan Alejo de Arizmendi: First Puerto Rican Bishop tells Power in the official ceremony to remember: "the rights of his fellow (compatriotas) countrymen, the natives of Puerto Rico" (gives him the episcopal ring)
What the Cabildos wanted:
an end to old taxes (abasto forzoso)
to regiment work of campesinos (farm workers) and asalariados (Labor workers) Creation of “clase de jornaleros” – paid laborers
free trade with friendly nations
more power to municipal governments
More public schools
Establishment of “gremios” or craft guilds
Junta Suprema in Sevilla disolved. A Regency will govern in the name of Ferdinand VII and it will ask the courts to meet. Thed new Cortes de Cadiz met - Power would be the diputado to the courts and will take this list
Power - Vice President of the Courts
Ley Power - Power Act
Objectives: reduce exclusive mercantilism; reduce power of governor
Separated intendency (treasury) from the governorship–
Alejandro Ramirez - Well known Spanish Economist
Abolished “abasto forzoso”
Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País.
Free trade in flour / export cattle paying small tax.
Opening of ports – Aguadilla, Cabo Rojo, Ponce, Fajardo
Constitution of 1812 was applied to PR
New System of Direct taxation
Abolish indirect taxes and interior customs. Taxes based on agricultural wealth estimated. Paid by all without exceptions – based on income
New taxes on houses for rent & slaves
Additional taxes to help needy immigrants from Venezuela.
Fiscal Autonomy for Ayuntamientos
Royal Treasury would publish their accounts.
To deal with the crisis of inflation created by the governors introduction of paper currency:
Proposed acceptance of moneda macuquina from Venezuela to fight shortage of metallic currency.
Campaign to restore confidence in paper money in the Diario Económico & pamphlet
Retire paper money gradually - - people could use it to pay taxes & in a Lottery.
By the time he left he had retired it all.
Diario Económico de Puerto Rico - - Second newspaper in the island (La Gaceta Oficial was the first) - restore confidence
Established Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País – Agriculture & Education
Education – courses on geography, commerce & math
Alejandro Ramirez's work set the basis for economic development in 19th century. PR will become a self sufficient colony.
Constitution of 1812
Basic rights for Puerto Ricans: freedoms, voting
Diputado a Cortes – elected indirectly every two years.
Diputación Provincial: Insular parliament
9 members – 7 elected by the 5 electors who chose Diputado
Check Municipal books
Regulate use of public funds
Supervise hospitals, education, public works, stimulate ….
Only king and courts could dissolve it
Governor had executive power and was appointed by the King
PR stopped being a COLONY and became a province of Spain. Puerto Ricans would be Spanish Citizens
More autonomy in local administration but still the island is controlled by the Cortes, thousands of miles away.
Real Cédula de Gracias
1814 - defeated Napoleon - Ferdinand VII returns to Spain and eliminated the Constitution of 1812 -returned to absolutism - Diputación Provincial dissolved by Governor in island.
10 August 1815 - King gives PR what is known as the Real Cédula de Gracias of 1815 as a reward for not rebelling and for helping Spain fight the rebels in Latin America
15 years: Free trade with Spain in Spanish ships
Trade with friendly nations permitted for 15 years, in emergencies free with neighboring islands.
Authorized Shipbuilding industry
Immigration of Catholic foreigners from friendly nations – would be given land, the would pay no taxes for five years and made it easy for them to become citizens
Permits import of machineries and agricultural tools free of taxes & license to bring slaves from neighboring foreign colonies.
Elimination of old sales taxes & church tithes and establishment of Income taxes
New Colonial Pact:
Economic liberalism with Political Absolutism
By 1825 Spain had been defeated in the hispanic - american wars for independence and had lost all land in the Americas eventually only keeping Cuba and Puerto Rico
Spain must revise the basis on which they exerted power in the island:
New economic regime established by the changes of the Cedula and Ley Power brought:
Growth of agricultural production for export
immigrants with capital and skills will settle here
more African slaves
Triumph of independence in Latin America made Spain feel threatened in the Caribbean
Unexpected consequence in some groups in PR:
They accepted the strong hand and despotism of Spanish governors in exchange for prosperity and maintenance of the social order that existed.
Factors that paved the way to revolutions in Latin Americas
The upper – class Creoles(Criollos) of Spanish America had acquired economic power but were excluded from leadership positions in the colonial administration and church. (no political power)
Spanish mercantilism hindered the increasing production of Creole Haciendas
The Peninsulares dominated trade and were seen as 'parvenus'.
Increasing Regionalism – Nationalism: “ I am not a Spaniard, I am an American”
Spanish market was not satisfaying the needs of Latin America and many realized that local markets, regional markets in America were more convinient (contraband - economic regionalization). So they don't need Spain.
Enlightenment ideas, American Revolution, French Revolution influenced the Criollos.
Napoleonic invasion of Spain triggered the rebellions in Latin America
How will these movements affect Puerto Rico:
"The island became Spain’s anti-revolutionary bastion and welcomed successive waves of South American loyalist refugees.” (Morales Carrion)
How does this affect the independence movement in the island?
Why P.R. did not join Laitn America and fight for independence?
How was the island different?
Effects of the Cédula
Beneffited the export economy by facilitating and accelerating economic and social changes. by promoting:
foreign trade (United States)
Hundreds of immigrants from a dozen countries who promoted coffee and sugar plantations
Importation of African slaves
Ignored most petitions of the cabildos in the island except some of the San Juan
Reduced revenues from trade so they increased the taxes on the island producers.
Merchants and foreign immigrants are the benefficiaries of these policies.
More imports and exports.
Second Constitutional Period
1820 - 1823
Events in wars for independence in Latin America and in Spain, forced the King Ferdinand VII when faced with a military rebellion to proclaim the Constitution of 1812 again.
Events on the island
Again we would have: Town councils, Diputacion Provincial, Deputies or representatives to the Spanish Courts
Separated the Civil government from the military government: two governors.
Repression of a slave conspiracy in Guayama
Repression of a separatist conspiracy
Ducoudray Holstein - Adventurer 'hired' by supposedly foreigners in the island (eastern coast)
Plans for a 'Boricua Republic' in the western part (slavery kept)
Discoverd and stopped
24,000 pesos expedition
Who paid for all of this?
Ferdinand VII regains absolutism and PR looses again all rights
General Changes / Characteristics
Population growth: x 6
high birth rates
higher mortality rates (especially among slaves)
epidemics - smallpox and yellow fever
hard working conditions
Immigration of foreigners - forced or voluntary
Breakup of the family and more children born out of wedlock. (transition to cash crops)
Forced and Voluntary Immigrants
Some obligated by force or by political or economic circumstances.
Others came voluntarily for personal reasons or attracted to the island
Some were disillusioned by difficulties and epidemics
Many survived and became part of our 'fabric' - - and contributed to our development.
Sent to work in the construction of fortifications
From 1763 to 1783 - many came
Some were soldiers who had deserted
Some escaped into the island
Many were left behind after serving.
Coming to the island since the 17th century - probably indentured servants from British Caribbean islands
In this period - mostly irishmen who had joined the Spanish Army.
Hacendados and Merchants
Loiza, Trujillo, Rio Piedras, Pueblo Viejo
Integral part of our society
Dominican and French Refugees
Settlement of the Interior
Most numerous and important for economic growth
Many original slaves had gone but many had mixed with Spanish and tainos
From the interior of Africa -
inter tribal wars and slave traffickers
Horrible conditions of voyage
From 1774 to 1807: 15,000 Africans came
many were children and adolescents
contributed to our culture: agriculture, food, music, social interaction, theater, poetry and humor
Impact on Western part
After the Haitian Independence and occupation of Santo Domingo
Some brought some wealth
Expertise of French coffee growers - Moca, Mayaguez and San German .Sugar experts - Aguadilla, Aguada, Mayaguez and Añasco
Dominicans: professionals: notaries, doctors, teachers, officials, cattlemen farmers etc...
Blended and contributed to economic transformation of Mayaguez area.
After Napoleonic wars, looking for opportunities
Spanish government promoted immigrants, especially those with some capital willing to accept Spanish government and Catholicism
After 1815: thousands of French, Italians, English, Scottish, Irish, Danish and German
Some Slavs, Portuguese, Maltese, Swiss and Dutch
Some Assimilated and second and third generation integrated into community, married Spaniards or creoles
Modest contributions to agriculture, crafts,professions and trade
Importance exaggerated: for a few decades of the sugar boom - their contribution was essential
Prestige: display of wealth and patronage of activities
Populated by Puerto Ricans moving inland searching for land opportunities.
1819: Junta de Terrenos Baldíos - gave plots and titles for uncultivated land.
Spontaneous occupation - informal squatting
From 1765 to 1824 - all districts in the interior increase population.
New towns are founded:
Governor Miguel de Muesas (1769 - 76) - 6
1790s - 8
Initially - mostly Puerto Rican population and subsistance farming and cattle ranching
Coffee and investment in agriculture will change this social structure.
Capital and Credit
Spanish Government in island believed our problems were lack of markets and workers
Residents (who engaged in smuggling) believed the problem was corruption of government officials who demanded bribes.
For government solution was: remove impediments to investments, make importation of slaves cheaper, give property titles so that land could be mortgaged or sold, give facilities and exemptions to trading companies.
Between 1765 to 1815 - all was achieved . . .but although trade increased . . who beneffited? Living conditions and working conditions for some deteriorated.
slaves became primary workers in the production of sugar.
How? Incentives giving franchises to bring slaves, abolishing
and reducing custom duties.
In ten years slave population increased to almost 14%
Sugar haciendas started to display cattle ranches
All around the coastal plains - even the eastern coast - haciendas
Ponce and Guayama became the main centers
Some interior valleys also became cane fields
Land concentrated in fewer hands in some places
Untitled landholders who lost land moved to interior
Cattle moved inland and drier land but not far to sugar plantations - complementary
Haciendas competed for water rights and wood, and depend on food supplies from the interior.
made evident the need for better roads - communication
Pressure on slaves to reduce production costs - abuses
Contrary to what abolitionists alleged - slave labor was more profitable that free labor according to research.
Attempts of rebellion were followed by severe repression
Other forms of protest: runaways - to Santo Domingo and Haiti and to the mountains, doing the least amount of work, stealing and selling things from the hacienda and sometimes killing themselves
Some were able to pay for their freedom. (more in 18th century than in the 19th) - as sugar production intensified it became more difficult to do.
Although there were laws to mitigate the abuse, slavery in the island was horrible.
One out of every two persons had a farm or a share of an hato.
More difference between those that had more land and those that had less, than between that had some land and those that squatted.
Rivalry between cattle ranchers and farmers had delayed formation of towns
Royal Charter 1778 - granted land titles to owners who were using it, paid annual taxes
1819 - Distribution of untitled land in mountainous area and northeast
Problem: Flight of Capital: money was used in imports
Problem: Lack of liquid capital to promote agriculture - no banks -
Church: Money left by parishioners to the church or to some priests was invested in agriculture & financed haciendas often.
Church tithes were also used to reinvest in agriculture
Soldiers also used the credit for their salaries to to invest in agriculture.
Commercial credit: harder to obtained and paid high interests:
Tied the debtor to the merchant:
As consumer - had to buy from merchant at higher prices
As producer - had to sell their crops to them at whatever prices they set
debt paid up with the harvest - - merchants controlled
Capital from immigrants was spent buying land, mills and slaves and they came to depend on commercial credits
French, English, and Cuban techniques were introduced for sugar manufacture.
Lowered production costs - simplified production and transportation - efficiency
1820s: boilers, chimneys, hydraulic and steam power -
To buy technology they will morgage the land.
1780s coffee - 1810s sugar
Events like American Revolution and Haiti's independence affect these crops
Coffee linked PR to St. Thomas and Europe
Sugar linked PR to Philadelphia, Boston, and N.Y.
Competition of foreign markets to supply manufactured goods to PR
Dramatic transformation. One side the Hierarchy of the Church initiatives - the other the popular views of the world
Not the same what the church authorities wanted and the devotion and practices and values of the people.
Change in attitude towards secular celebrations and social activities shared by men and women
Bishops' reports seem to describe the society as 'gone wild', but really it was not true.
Arizmendi opposed even theaters while a generation later another bishop supported the opening in San Juan of one. Fewer prohibitions against feasts and shows attended by men and women.
women acquired more individuality (names)
Lack of criollo priests. Very social and participated in their activities and concerned with their problems. - criticized the tenientes a guerra or hacendados who would do something against their parishioners.
Background: Period 5
Period 5: 1750 - 1789
Rapid socio - economic, political and cultural changes
Alejandro O'Reilly's visit
Fray Iñigo Abad y Lasierra - Historia
Field Marshal of the Spanish Army
Sent in 1765 by Charles III to inspect the defenses of the island
Observes and reports about everything
What he saw:
Census: 39,846 free, 5,037 slaves
Majority towns – coastal – north & west
Age: young – 78% below 40
Majority of labor – free but only 11% of population
Trade with Spain insignificant
Revenues: Mostly Situado & Taxes
Population: soldiers, runaways, sailors
Mild climate & abundance of food
Smuggling provides the rest - useful
Rural Society: Mixed freely, Social backwardness
Limited formal education
Only 1/20 of land used in cultivation
Local Markets & internal trade – almost non – existent
Contraband: Contact with the world; Organized & punctual
(Since 1550s no regular vessels came)
(Fleet system – one or two vessels were assigned but rarely came - not one ship from 1651 – 1662)
Change Royal Policy – urgent economic measures
Revise laws governing trade and property rights
Get back uncultivated land & give it to new farmers
Send immigrants – men with capital – sugar mills
Help the sugar industry
Reorganize military forces & improve defenses
“The importance of the situation of Puerto Rico, the goodness of its port, the fertility , rich products, and population, the advantages that it should produce for our commerce, and the irreparable harm that would occur if foreigners possessed it, demand, it seems to me , the most serious and prompt attention by the king ….”
Bourbon Reforms under Charles III
Insular trade was opened to ships from many ports of Spain and from Spanish Antilles. Later extended to all the empire
The military power and island's defenses were strengthened
Milicias disciplinadas - Father of Puerto Rican militias
Tomás O'Daly - military engineer - in charge of fortification plans - - 20 years of massive buildings - millions of pesos spend
Slave trade was liberalized - more slaves in island
Commercial agriculture received incentives - coffee, tabacco, sugar cane to the detriment of the cattle ranches (hatos) "desacomodados"
In 1778 Land titles were given - no longer only in usufruct.
Promoted the founding of towns - some were organized as municipalities or villas
1800: 21, 952
Other important visitors ...
Fernando Miyares González
Cuban in Spanish Army
1769 – 1779
Andre Pierre Ledrú -
scientific expedition - describes flora, fauna and customs
Fray Iñigo Abbad y Lasierra:
1771 – 1778 – Secretary of Bishop in PR
Historia Geográfica, Civil y Natural de la Isla de San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico
Published in 1788
first published history
Describes PR - a changing society - potential
Hierarchy of Church
Importance of sacraments and catechism
Bishop found people as uncultured & ignorant
Bishop did not accept interracial relationships & criticized criollo clergy who socialized in parties and cockfights
domestic altars, rosaries, major festivities
expressed values in terms different to stri religious definition
Works of mercy, generosity, hospitality & solidarity more important.
Rural socializing led to interracial relationships
Church & Common People
Same outlook at world:
doubts about monoculture
concept of time: different pace than merchants and hacendados (market economy - use time to the maximum)
40 feast days for mass . . . some days for work, others holy - octavitas
Officially view of investors and hacendados would prevail but .... there was absenteeism and 'relajo' to get away
Time line From 1508 to 1750
1508 – 1530 Conquest & Colonization
• "Pacification" of the Amerindians Rebellion of 1511
• Export economy based on first on gold & later on sugar
• Encomienda System -Exploitation of Amerindians
• Exploitation of the African Slaves
• Organization of the Colonial government and other Spanish institutions: Catholic Church
1530 - 1590 Slave Plantations & Military outpost
• Exportation economy based on agriculture and cattle ranching
• Continuing importation of slaves
• Attacks from French and British privateers and Amerindians from Lesser Antilles
1590– 1700 Foreign Aggressions and a colony adrift
• Two British and one Dutch attack
• Construction of surrounding walls in San Juan
• Official Royal neglect and colonial self - absorption
• Jíbaro starts acquiring its own identity
1595: Sir Francis Drake
1598:Earl of Cumberland
1625: Balduino Enrico
1700 – 1750: The Era of the Privateers
• The beginning of the Bourbon reforms
• Still apathy from metropolis and official abandonment except in military affairs
• Rivalries in the Caribbean and Puerto Rican Privateers
• Foundation of new towns and growth in population
• Agricultural expansion
From 1511 – 1521: Lucrative = hundreds of thousands of pesos
Annual production average – 100,000 to 200,000
What did the King receive? “Quinto Real” - 1/5
- 8% to 5% of the wealth that Spain received came from the island.
From 1520 - 1530: Production of gold went down
Governors (Letrados - Militares)
Consejo de las Indias (Sevilla)
Casa de Contratación
(House of Trade)