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Transcript of Solar System
and Princess Radam
Mercury has very little atmosphere to stop impacts and it is covered with craters. Ice may even exist in craters. Mercury's egg-shaped orbit takes it around the sun every 88 Earth days.
Mercury is at a distance of about 58 million km (36 million miles) or 0.39 AU from the sun.
One day on Mercury takes 59 Earth days.
Mercury's thin atmosphere, or exosphere, is composed mostly of oxygen, sodium, hydrogen, helium, and potassium.
Daytime temperatures can reach 800 degrees Fahrenheit and drop to -290 degrees Fahrenheit at night.
The sun is a star, a hot ball of gases at the center of our solar system. Its influence extends as far as the orbits of distant Neptune and Pluto. Without the sun's intense energy and heat, there would be no life on Earth. And though it is important to us, there are billions of stars like our sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy.The sun makes up 99.8% of the mass of the entire solar system.Since the sun is not a solid body, different parts of the sun rotate at different rates. At the equator, the sun spins once about every 25 Earth days, but at its poles the sun rotates once on its axis every 36 days.The temperature at the sun's core is about 27 million degrees Fahrenheit.
Scientists estimate the diameter of Venus at about 7,520 miles, making it approximately 400 miles smaller in diameter than Earth.
The planet's extreme high temperatures of almost 900 degrees Fahrenheit make it seem an unlikely place for life.
One day on Venus lasts as long as 243 Earth days. Venus makes a complete orbit around the sun in 225 Earth days.
Venus spins backwards (retrograde rotation) when compared to the other planets.
Venus' solid surface is a cratered and volcanic landscape.
Venus' thick and toxic atmosphere is made up mostly of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2), with clouds of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) droplets.
The Earth's atmosphere is made up of 78 percent nitrogen (N2), 21 percent oxygen (O2) and 1 percent other ingredients
Earth was originally born as a twin to the planet Theia, which was about half as wide as Earth and roughly the size of Mars. The two planets shared an orbit for several million years until they collided. Earth absorbed Theia, and the remaining debris eventually coagulated into Earth’s moon. The mass donated by Theia gave Earth the gravity necessary to sustain a substantial atmosphere
More than 80% of the Earth’s surface is volcanic.
70 percent of the Earth's surface is covered in oceans.
Earth is the third planet from the sun at a distance of about 150 million km (93 million miles) or one AU.
Earth's atmosphere protects us from incoming meteoroids, most of which break up in our atmosphere before they can strike the surface as meteorites.
The moon is Earth's satellite and orbits the Earth at a distance of about 384 thousand km (239 thousand miles) or 0.00257 AU.
The moon was likely formed after a Mars-sized body collided with Earth and the debris formed our moon.
The moon makes a complete orbit around Earth in 27 Earth days and rotates at that same rate.
The moon has a very thin and tenuous (weak) atmosphere, called an exosphere.
The moon has a very thin and tenuous (weak) atmosphere, called an exosphere.
Many astronomers consider Saturn the most beautiful planet in the solar system because of its stunning rings. In fact, Saturn’s nickname is “the jewel of the solar system.
Saturn is the second-largest planet in our solar system after Jupiter, which is about 20% larger than Saturn.
Scientists believe that Saturn is approximately -350° F (-212° C). The coldest temperature ever recorded on Earth is -129° F (-89° C).
Saturn is 74,898 miles (120,537 km.) wide, nearly 10 times wider than Earth. Approximately 750 Earths could fit inside of Saturn.
A year on Earth is 365.256 days. A year on Saturn is 10,759.22 days.
One day on Jupiter takes about 10 hours. Jupiter makes a complete orbit around the sun in about 12 Earth years (4,333 Earth days).
The distance Jupiter must travel to complete 1 trip around the Sun is 4,887,595,931 km or 3,037,011,311 miles.
. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system, it is so large you could fit over 1,300 Earth’s inside it or you would need 11 Earths to just go from one end of Jupiter to the other.
If the sun were as tall as a typical front door, Jupiter would be about as big as a basketball.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the sun at a distance of about 778 million km (484 million miles) or 5.2 AU.
Jupiter is a gas-giant planet and therefore does not have a solid surface. However, it is predicted that Jupiter has an inner, solid core about the size of the Earth.
Jupiter's atmosphere is made up mostly of hydrogen (H2) and helium (He).
Jupiter has 50 known moons, with an additional 17 moons awaiting confirmation of their discovery. That is a total of 67 moons.
some of Jupiter's moons have oceans underneath their crusts that might support life.
Jupiter has a faint ring system that was discovered in 1979 by the Voyager 1 mission.
Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a gigantic storm (bigger than Earth) that has been raging for hundreds of years.
Mars is red because it is rusty. There is a lot of iron in the soil, and the air on Mars has made it turn red-just like rusty iron on Earth.
One of Mars' moons, Phobos, is moving closer and closer to Mars. Scientists think that one day it will crash into Mars.
Mars has the tallest Volcano in the Solar System named Olympus Mons and it is 15 miles high which is three times the height of Mount Everest.
Mars orbits the sun every 687 Earth days.
Mars has a thin atmosphere made up mostly of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar).
Mars has two moons named Phobos
Mars orbits our sun at a distance of about 228 million km (142 million miles) or 1.52 AU.
Mars is known as the Red Planet because iron minerals in the Martian soil oxidize and the dusty atmosphere make it look red.
Because of the strange way it spins, nights on some parts of Uranus can last for more than 40 years.
The planet's most extraordinary feature is the tilt of its rotational axis, which is almost perpendicular to the plane of the eclipitc, which means that it alternately has its north pole and its south pole turned towards the sun.
It takes 30,685 Earth days for Uranus to complete an orbit around the sun.
Uranus and Neptune are both known as Ice Giants.
It is the second least dense planet after Saturn.
Neptune is so far away that it took the space probe Voyager 2, 12 years to reach it.
Neptune is the stormiest planet. The winds there can blow up to 1,240 miles per hour, that is three times as fast as Earth's Hurricanes.
Neptune is a sea blue color due to the methane gas in its atmosphere.
Neptune once had a great dark spot similar to Jupiter.
Neptune only receives 1/900 of the solar energy that reaches Earth.
Neptune has its own heat source, it emits a quantity of energy 2.7 times greater than it receives.
There are 200 objects in the asteroid belt larger than 60 miles (100 km) in diameter and almost 1 million objects over 1 km in diameter.
The average surface temperature of an asteroid is -73C (-100F).
The largest asteroid Ceres was the first to be discovered in 1801, it has recently been re-classified as a dwarf planet.
Asteroids are rich in minerals, the estimated wealth of the asteroid belt is 100 billion dollars for every person on Earth today.
The study of asteroids can give us a valuable insight into how the planets formed.
Days and years vary by asteroid. A day on asteroid Ida, for example, takes only 4.6 hours. Ida makes a complete orbit around the sun in 4.8 Earth years.
The Kuiper Belt (sometimes referred to as the Kuiper-Edgeworth Belt) is an area of the outer solar system that is estimated to stretch across 20 astronomical units (AU) of space.
It contains small solar system bodies made mostly of ices. The ices are frozen volatiles (gases) such as methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water. It also is home to the known dwarf planets Pluto, Haumea and Makemake.
The largest Kuiper Belt Objects are Pluto, Quaoar, Makemake, Haumea, Ixion, and Varuna. These are often also referred to as Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs).
Past the Kupier Belt is the deep space. It extends out to the Milky Way and into the mysterious void called the Universe.
Comets are cosmic snowballs of frozen gases, rock and dust roughly the size of a small town.
Short-period comets reside in the icy region known as the Kuiper Belt beyond the orbit of Neptune from about 30 to 55 AU. Long-period comets originate in the far-off reaches of the Oort Cloud, which is five thousand to 100 thousand AUs from the sun.
Days on comets vary. For example one day on comet Halley varies between 2.2 to 7.4 Earth days Comet Halley makes a complete orbit around the sun in 76 Earth years.
A comet warms up as it nears the sun and develops an atmosphere (coma). The coma may be hundreds of thousands of kilometers in diameter.
Dwarf planets orbit our sun. Most are located in the Kuiper Belt, a region of icy objects beyond the orbit of Neptune. Pluto, one of the largest and most famous dwarf planets, is about 5.9 billion km (3.7 billion miles) or 39.48 AU away from the sun. Dwarf planet Ceres is in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
Days and years vary on dwarf planets. For example one day on Ceres takes about nine hours. Ceres makes a complete orbit around the sun in about 4.60 Earth years.
Many, but not all dwarf planets have moons.
Dwarf planets Pluto and Eris have tenuous (thin) atmospheres that expand when they come closer to the sun and collapse as they move farther away. It is possible dwarf planet Ceres has an atmosphere.