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Accelerating Our Knowledge of d/Deaf/Hard of Hearing Student

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Jennifer Rodgers

on 7 November 2015

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Transcript of Accelerating Our Knowledge of d/Deaf/Hard of Hearing Student

Do you feel that you adequately serve your d/Deaf and hard of hearing students in your developmental reading courses?

What do you do to meet the needs of your d/Deaf and hard of hearing students?

Current United States Statistics
"low-incidence population"
Up to 22 out of every 1,000 people have a severe hearing impairment or are deaf
1 million people (0.38% of population) over 5 years of age are functionally deaf
Approximately 20,000 deaf students were identified in postsecondary schools in 1992-1993
Employment Statistics
Persons with Severe to Profound Hearing Loss:
Did not graduate from high school
(total US population- 18.7%)

Were in the labor force
(hearing population- 82%)

College graduation
(hearing population- 12.8%)

~Deaf students who earn a sub-baccalaureate degree will earn
29% more
than those who withdraw from college.

d/Deaf: History and Identity Development
hard of hearing / deaf = range of hearing loss
capital "D" Deaf = a culture
Thomas Gallaudet and the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut (1817)
1800's begins history of segregation of d/Deaf/HH students in education

Deaf Community
American Sign Language
shared values
common goals
a celebration vs. a
identity development continues

IDEA (1975)and ADA (1990)
mainstreaming (75% of pop.)
bicultural / bilingual identity
What are some of the challenges for a Deaf college student?
Guest Speaker: Jason Boyd
President of the Hinds Community
College Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Alumni chapter

Issues to address:
his experiences as a college student at HCC
strategies he used to be successful
interactions with instructors
most effective teaching strategies
Factors Impacting Success
Social issues:
-developing social skills
-establishing an identity
-acquiring independence and interdependence
Qualities to encourage:
-self-identity and self-efficacy
-ability to accommodate oneself in an integrative environment
Accelerating Our Knowledge of
d/Deaf & Hard of Hearing Students in Postsecondary Developmental Education

(Reilly, 2011)
(Reilly, 2011)
Question: What might be a negative outcome
of being a "low-incidence population" in regards
to access and equity?
(Miller, 2007)
(Miller, 2007)
*End at 5 minute mark.
Questions to Consider:

What self-efficacy skills does this
student display?
What is his advice for
communicating with Deaf students?
(Lang, 2002)
Factors Impeding Success
Lack of communication between instructor and student due to reliance upon third parties (interpreters and tutors)
Loss of information during a lecture based lesson
Interpreter's lack of content knowledge
Challenge of attending to multiple visual tasks
Lack of classroom participation due to pace, number of speakers involved, language and cultural differences, and the use of space

"...college and university faculty 'generally indicated that they made few if any modifications for deaf students and saw support service faculty as responsible for the success or failure of these students'" (p.274)

Effective Strategies
-Build lessons that encourage an active learning style
-Be cognizant of the rate or pace at which information is introduced
-Use visual materials
-Communicate expectations and assignments clearly
-Make sure students understand
-Challenge students thinking
-Discourage rapid give-and-take in discussions and encourage one student talking at a time
-Build a collaborative relationship with the interpreter and tutors
"...skilled teachers of the deaf are able to motivate DHH students or utilize methods adapted to their strengths and needs such that those students can learn just as much as their hearing peers" (Richardson et al., 2010)
Encouraging Communication
get attention with a soft touch or visual sign
speak naturally, short sentences are best
keep mouth visible
keep direct eye contact even when using an interpreter
use gestures and body language
Access and Equity
"The Office for Civil Rights has held that the three basic components of "effective" communication are timeliness of delivery, accuracy of translation, and provision of communication in a
manner and medium appropriate
to the significance of the message and the abilities of the individual with the disability" (National Association of the Deaf, 2014)

"Assessments and other educational support services need to address all domains in the life of the student who is deaf or hard of hearing, including social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development, and
should use multiple sources of information for decision making
" (NASP, 2014).

Brainstorm: What assessments do you use? Are they appropriate? What modifications do you make? Is your assessment procedure operating as a barrier?
Assessment Accommodations
The following are accommodations generally made for DHH K-12 students during statewide assessments:

extended time
separate setting
ASL interpretation of test directions or test items
test items read aloud to students
students' use of ASL in their responses
a version of the test in simplified English
(Cawthon, 2009)

Brainstorm: What accommodations do you make? Could any of these accommodations be appropriate in your class assignments?
Something else to consider...
How does the literacy process differ for hearing students and DHH students?

Linguistic Interdependence Theory (Lin, 2013)
Bilingual Models: Are they a false analogy for DHH?
L1 = ASL and L2= written English
Lack of internal speech
Discontinuities between "sign" functions and "words"
Interdependence of spoken and written language

"...even for hearing children, the process of learning to read and write academic texts can be both slow and difficult. But for deaf children, the process is even more arduous, for they face the added challenge of reconstructing, not the natural language of speech, but the natural language grammar of sign in their written text" (Mayer, 1996)

Brainstorm: What impact does this information have on the way we use writing in our reading courses? How is this important when considering an integrated reading/writing course?
Innovative Possibilities
From a critical social theory perspective, how can we improve our practice?

How does language and literacy emancipate all students in our courses?

"...the quality of an educational situation must be judged, not solely by technical outcomes, but also by the agency of those involved and the adequacy of the processes through which learning occurs" (Bates, 2013)

The Footsteps Project
Working Conferences
Learning ASL

The Footsteps Project
Cultural discontinuity between teacher and student
Border Crossings
Examine conscious and subconscious biases
Plan a curriculum with a multicultural framework
Process of reflection

Apprenticeship forms of learning
Multilevel comentoring
Connection to HCC 4SITE Program

Brainstorm: In what ways could copreparation, coteaching, and coevaluation be beneficial for our department in regards to meeting the needs of DHH students?

(Mullen, 2013)

Working Conferences
"In analyzing the struggles for intellectual voice among marginalized learners...Lang and Meath-Lang (1992) call for deaf learners in higher education to become more involved in redirecting their own destinies" (p.277, Lang, 2002)

Importance of self-advocacy
Involves students, professors, and other stakeholders
Discuss barriers to learning
Forum to explain difficulties in a non-threatening way

(Lang, 2002)
Learning ASL
Levels of engagement will impact grades, and students acknowledge that instructors who can sign is beneficial.

Let's watch this video for some basic ASL signs we can use in the classroom. Practice with a partner.
On-going Issues to Consider
Impact of mainstreaming and students who have been taught with a bilingual model
How to best provide access to the curriculum
Equitable assessment practices
Valuing Deaf culture
Building communication and community

"The problem is not that the students do not hear. The problem is that the hearing world does not listen."
~Rev. Jesse L. Jackson

Our goal in the reading department should be to value the culture, life experiences, and needs of our DHH students, and when we accelerate down this path we will be that much closer to the attainment of our goal.
(Lang, 2002)
(Lang, 2002)
In Groups:
Identify the speaker
Identify the topic
Insist on one speaker at a time
Provide new vocab ahead of time
Make sure all peers can see one another's faces
Invoke full participation from the DHH student
Through an Interpreter
Speak directly to student
Allow extra time for transfer
Give outlines and use visual aids
Review topics, agenda, and info
ahead of time with interpreter
(Hard of Hearing, 2014)
(Mayer, 1999)
(Fraser-Abder, 2013)
(Convertino, 2009)
: Instructors can audit a course at HCC for free.
IDT 1164
is an introductory course to learning American Sign Language.
Bates, Richard. (2013). Education and social justice. In B. Irby, G. Brown, R. Lara-Alecio, & S.
Jackson (Eds.),
The handbook of educational theories
(pp.1011-1018). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Cawthon, Stephanie. (2009). Professional development for teachers of students who are deaf or
hard of hearing: Facing the assessment challenge.
American Annals of the Deaf
, 154 (1), 50-61.

Convertino, C. & Marschark, M. (2009). Predicting academic success among college students.
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
, 14(3), 324-343. doi: 10.1093/deafed/enp005

Fraser-Abner, P. (2013). In B. Irby, G. Brown, R. Lara-Alecio, & S. Jackson (Eds.),
The handbook of
educational theories
(pp.1011-1018). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Hard of hearing and deaf students: A resource guide to support classroom teachers. (2014).
Retrieved June 20, 2014, from www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialized/hearimpair/tip20.htm

Lang, Harry. (2002). Higher education for deaf students: Research priorities in the new millennium.
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
, 7(4), 267-280.

Lin, C. & Wang, M. (2013). Cross-language transfer in bilingual and biliteracy development. In B.
Irby, G. Brown, R. Lara-Alecio, & S. Jackson (Eds.),
The handbook of educational theories
(pp.1011-1018). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Mayer, C. & Wells, G. (1996). Can the linguistic interdependence theory support a bilingual-
bilcultural model of literacy education for deaf students?
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education,
1(2), 93-107.

Mayer, C. & Wells, G. (1999). Bilingual-bicultural models of literacy education for deaf students:
Considering the claims
. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education,
4(1), 1-8.

Miller, E. (2007). Supporting d/Deaf and hard of hearing college students: Considerations for student
affairs practitioners
. The Vermont Connection,
28, 15-25.

Mullen, C. (2013). Mentoring theories for educational practitioners. In B. Irby, G. Brown, R. Lara-Alecio,
& S. Jackson (Eds.),
The handbook of educational theories
(pp.1011-1018). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

National Association of the Deaf. (2014). American sign language. Retrieved June 20, 2014, from

National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). (2014). NASP position statement: Serving students
who are deaf or hard of hearing.Retrieved June 20, 2014, from

Reilly, C. & Qi, S. (2011). Snapshot of deaf and hard of hearing people, postsecondary attendance and
unemployment. Retrieved June 20, 2014, from

Richardson, J., Marschark, M., Sarchet, T., & Sapere, P. (2010). Deaf and hard-of-hearing students'
experiences in mainstream and separate postsecondary education.
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15
(4), 358-382.

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