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Transcript of ACADA MODEL
A-ction * the main activity in assessment is to identify what information is missing and to design and carry out research to fill in the gaps. +the following are examples of documents that could be reviewed during assessment.
a. reports and other surveillance records
b. relevant research reports
c. existing policies and practices
d. planning guidelines at all levels *it is important to begin analysis with the development problem *it enables us to analyze the problems that being identified during assessment + the problem statement answers the following questions:
1) what is happening (are people doing/not doing) that is a problem?
2) where and when does it usually take place?
3)whom does it effect?
4) what are the primary effects of the problem?
5) what are the possible causes? B. Determine Problem Behavior (s) to address * rate and prioritize behavioral causes on the basis of changeability and importance * out of important and changeable behaviors select one to three behaviors to address C. Conduct Behavior Analysis * all categories of stakeholders that ought to be involved in the communication effort as either target audiences, partners or allies are identified and analyzed. * participant analysis is concerned with identifying other individuals and institutions that may be enlisted to support behavior change and behavior development in the community. a. advocacy partners
b. social mobilization partners
c. programme communication partners E. Develop Communication Objectives * The objective is a statement of the desired end result. * Objectives must be specific and must be stated in such a way that they can be interpreted only one way. * Good objective are therefore , SMART F. Develop Strategies and Activities G. Develop Monitoring and
Evaluation Indicators * Monitoring and Evaluation Indicators are drawn mainly from programme and may be classified in three main categories: + Process Indicators - focus on short- term achievements of a programme. + Impact Indicators - are useful in assessing medium-term effects on programme. + Outcome Indicators - are useful in providing information on the long-term effects of programme interventions - There are 3 main areas which involve in decision-making: 1. Determining message concepts
that will bring about the desired
behavior knowledge. 2. Selecting the communication approach. 3. Choosing the message appeal or tone. I. Determining Message concepts Good Messages: Reinforce positive factors
Address misunderstandings and areas of deficient knowledge.
Give the benefits of behaviours being promoted.
Urge specific action.
State where to find the services being promoted.
State where to find help, if needed.
Address barriers to action. II. Choosing the communication
approach -Depending on the communication problem and research findings, planners may wish to take and or a combination of the following approaches: Informing
Empowering III. Choosing the message
appeal or tone -Communication planners also determine the appeal that the messages should have. Depending on research findings, and the behaviours that need to be promoted, planners may select any or a combination of the following possible message tones: Positive or negative
Rational or emotional
Mass or individual
Humorous or serious
One or two-sided
Direct or indirect
Definite or open-minded
From a peer or from an authoritative source Research &
Monitoring ACADA Communication Planning Process Implement Plan Situation Report Evaluation
Message & Material development
Pre-testing & Revisions
Materials Dissemination & Training plan
Monitoring & Evaluation plan
Plan of Action Select/Determine Strategy Plan Action Design Communication Analysis Strategies/Activities
Approach, Appeal, Tone Advocacy
Behaviour Development Communication Assessment Communication Objectives
Evaluation Indicators Problem Analysis/Statement
Communication Channel Analysis Programme Communication, UNICEF New York Cohen & Luciani Develop plans for material development -Programs should avoid developing posters, calendars, booklets, and similar materials merely because many organizations develop them. Educational materials should be: Appropriate to the topic and target audience
Appropriate to the context/setting in which they will be used. I.Draft messages and concepts
II.Review, pretest and revise text and concepts
III.Development of educational materials Develop plans for dissemination -Since the beginning of this planning process, many decisions that go into the communication plan have been taken. In this section, we think about how the pieces will fit together: How the messages will reach intended audiences.
How educational materials will be distributed.
How educational materials will be used. ACTION -Action involves implementing communication activities for development programme. It is organized to four main sections: Management structures and processes
Communication management instruments
Staffing and institutional skills
Key communications activities Management structures and processes -Organizational structures and work processes influence the quality and effectiveness of activities including communication activities. EPI programmes should therefore, review their structures to ensure that they have the capacity to support implementation of effective communication programmes. Communication management instruments -The behavior change process is a complex one, and needs to be managed effectively using appropriate instruments. These include: *Communication strategy plan and plan of action-
form the basis for implementing
communication activities and should be
developed regularly with the participation of
all development agents and partners. *Monitoring system and monitoring formats-
this helps programme managers to know how implementation of planned activities. *Supervision system and checklist-
communication activities are complex. They often
spread throughout the country and involve many
people. These include paid staff and various
volunteers •Staffing and institutional skills -There is generally low storage of staff in communication activities, hence the need to assess the communication skills available and take steps to upgrade them as required. Key communication activities -Here we spell out ideas on how to implement key activities that form the backbone of programme communication: I. Training and capacity building- programs will
need to include appropriate training activities
in their communication plans. II. Integrating and phasing development
communication component and a development
programme should be well integrated. Necessary
campaign of the programme at different stages should
be carried out as planned. III. Using media mix and varied communication
opportunities- a mix of media and
communication settings ( mass, group and
one-on-one) cannot be underscored. This is
because different communication settings
have different strengths and weaknesses, and
use of a combination of media and
communication settings produces superior
results. IV. Monitoring communication activities- routine
monitoring, documentation and utilization of
monitoring information to identify and correct
programme flaws is key to the implementation
of good-quality communication programmes. V. Supervising communication activities- this will
involve routine monitoring of field activities,
discussions with the people on the ground to
identify strengths to be reinforced and
weaknesses to be corrected, developing follow-
up and improvement strategies and supporting
the team on the ground to implement
improvement strategies. VI. Evaluating communication activities-
communication programmes need to be
systematically evaluated to determine their
performance, their accomplishments and the
action that needs to be taken to improve the
situation. Thank you! objective strategy activity How? How? illustration on how to move from objectives to strategies and activity statements