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Electricity In Our World
Transcript of Electricity In Our World
Naturally Occuring Electricity Prodcued or
Electricty Used By Humans Naturally Occuring
Electricity: Lightning Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms. In the atmospheric electrical discharge, a leader of a bolt of lightning can travel at speeds of 220,000 km/h (140,000 mph), and can reach temperatures approaching 30,000 °C (54,000 °F), hot enough to fuse silica sand into glass channels known as fulgurites which are normally hollow and can extend some distance into the ground. There are approximately 16 million lightning storms in the world every year. Electric Eel Fireflies Firefly, or Lightning Bug, a beetle that produces light. The light is produced in special organs called photophores located on the underside of the abdomen. They consist of several layers of small reflector cells and a single layer of light-producing cells. Most of the 2,000 known species of fireflies live in the tropics. About 60 species live in North America. The insects range in length from less than half an inch (12.7 mm) to more than an inch (25.4 mm). Electric Rays Electric Rays belong to the family Torpediniformes which is derived from the Latin word ‘torpere’ which mean to stun or paralyze. These flattened cartilaginous creatures have the potential to produce an electric discharge ranging from 37 volts right up to a staggering 220 volts. Ranging from 6 inches these underwater stunners can grow to a length of 6 feet long and weigh up to 200 pounds. Like most rays electric rays are bottom dwelling and slow moving creatures relying heavily on their tails. They feed on invertebrates and small fish and lie in wait for prey below the sand or other substrate, using their electricity to stun and capture it. The common torpedo has five bright blue, dark-edged spots on its back making it easily recognizable The electric catfish which has around 18 freshwater catfish species native to the Nile in Africa, can grow up to 1.2 m (4 feet) in length and 20 kg (45 pounds) in weight. This creature is capable of generating and controlling the discharge of up to 450 volts of electricity. It uses its power to defend itself and to capture prey. The electric organ is composed of modified muscle tissue and forms a fine, gelatinous layer directly beneath the soft, naked skin of the fish. Though the shock an electric catfish can generate is enough to kill a human, there are no documented cases of human fatalities caused by the catfish which would require repeated discharges to be fatal. Electric Catfish Stargazers possess a large upward-facing mouth in an equally large head and have their eyes on the top of their heads, giving them their name. Their usual habit is to bury themselves in sand, and leap upwards to ambush prey that passes overhead. Some species have a worm-shaped lure growing out of the floor of the mouth, which they can wiggle to attract prey’s attention. Electric Stargazers possess their electric organ behind each of their eyes that is capable of generating up to 50 volts of electricity which is more than sufficient to stun or kills its prey. Electric Stargazer Though called the electric eel, this creature does not belong to the family of eels but a species of knifefish which is a close relative of the catfish. Found primarily in the muddy bottoms of the fresh waters of the Amazon and Orinoco river basins in South America, these shocking creatures can generate a powerful electric current of up to 650volts to paralyze or kill its prey. Just to put this into perspective; this is 5 times the shock you would get from sticking your finger into an electrical socket. Generally 100-300 volts can shock the heart into defibrillation if the path of the current flows through the heart. A higher voltage will probably stop the heart. Electric eels have been known to stun animals as large as horses as they attempt to cross the river. the number one underwater creature with the ability to generate the greatest electric current from its body. Nerve Impulses All physical objects are made up of atoms. Inside an atom are protons, electrons and neutrons. The protons are positively charged, the electrons are negatively charged, and the neutrons are neutral. Therefore, all things are made up of charges. Opposite charges attract each other (negative to positive). Like charges repel each other (positive to positive or negative to negative). Most of the time positive and negative charges are balanced in an object, which makes that object neutral. Static electricity is the result of an imbalance between negative and positive charges in an object. These charges can build up on the surface of an object until they find a way to be released or discharged. One way to discharge them is through a circuit. The rubbing of certain materials against one another can transfer negative charges, or electrons. For example, if you rub your shoe on the carpet, your body collects extra electrons. The electrons cling to your body until they can be released. As you reach and touch your furry friend, you get a shock. Don't worry, it is only the surplus electrons being released from you to your unsuspecting pet. And what about that "hair raising" experience? As you remove your hat, electrons are transferred from hat to hair, creating that interesting hairdo! Remember, objects with the same charge repel each other. Because they have the same charge, your hair will stand on end. Your hairs are simply trying to get a s far away from each other as possible! Static Electricity Depending on the type of fiber, the neural impulse travels at speed ranging from a sluggish 2 miles per hour to, in some myelinated fibers, a breackneck 200 or more miles per hour. But even this top speed is 3 million times slower than the speed of electricity through a wire. Some actions require split second responses--withdrawring a hand from a hot stove, for example. To relay the information necessary for such a reaction, there are large nerve fibers that can conduct impulses at speeds as high as 330 feet (100 meters) per second. Other kinds of activities, such as scholarly pursuits, may require a lifetime of thought. For these kinds of activities, other nerve fibers can be used to conduct signals more slowly--70 to 100 feet (20 to 30 meters) per second. Impulse Control Disorder Exact causes of impulse control disorders are unknown, but may be linked to genetics, family environment, and/or neurological factors. Some research suggests that impulse control disorders are linked to certain hormones, abnormal nerve impulses, and variations in brain chemistry and function. Children and adolescents who have had a severe head injury and who have epilepsy may be at greater risk of developing these disorders. In children and adolescents, impulse control disorders often occur along with other psychological conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Impulse control disorders include five conditions that involve a recurrent failure to resist impulsive behaviors that harm one's self or others: intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, kleptomania, trichotillomania, and compulsive gambling disorder. Intermittent explosive disorder involves unusually aggressive and violent outbursts. Pyromania is characterized by repetitive and purposeful fire-setting. Kleptomania involves urges to steal and repetitive acts of unnecessary theft. Trichotillomania is recurrent pulling out of hair. Compulsive gambling disorder is maladaptive, repetitive gambling. Repetitive self-mutilation is considered by some experts to be a type of impulse control disorder. In this condition, people cause intentional harm to themselves through burning, cutting, or scratching. Treatment
Impulse control disorders are treated with medication, psychotherapy, and behavior modification. If these disorders are occurring in conjunction with another condition, such as ADHD, medication and therapy for that condition often helps alleviate the impulse control disorder. Depression is often an underlying factor in some impulse control disorders, particularly compulsive gambling disorder and trichotillomania. Therefore, treatment with antidepressants may be helpful.
Long-term counseling and psychotherapy is usually necessary as well. Therapy methods to help with impulse control generally involve behavior modification, anger and stress management, and psychoanalysis. Therapy can occur in residential or day treatment facilities, or on an outpatient basis. Support groups, such as Gamblers Anonymous, may also help.
By Humans Hopefully you learned some new exciting
examples of how we use electricity in
out world! Now...last but not least!!!!! References
several google images