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Valerie Baalerud

on 10 May 2017

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Transcript of AP WWII

Background - WWI Lingers
General Conditions:
U.S. - Attempt "normalcy"
Europe -Not quite as normal
Germany specifically - disastrous
Economy ruined -
hyperinflation - money is worthless
in debt
Political instability

Germany - Resentment
lamed for the war
rmy reduced
erritory taken
(including gains from Russia)
Treaty of Versailles
& Terms of "The End"

Soviet Union (Russia)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russia setttles with Central Powers
Russia has problems to deal with at home
Broke alliances
Lost land
Lost ports
Promised the Adriatic Coast
Disappointed by spoils of war
Given two small areas of Adriatic
Country of Yugoslavia created
Feels under appreciated
League of Nations
No support from U.S. - doomed
Disarmament is not enforced
Germany (joins in 1926) & Italy drops out
Peace will not be kept
Global Depression
Depression doesn't stop with U.S.
(Smoot-Hawley) - tariff act
European countries impacted
Thus territories/colonies impacted
Way is paved for a leader...or a dictator

Rise of Dictators
Benito Mussolini
Joseph Stalin
Hideki Tojo
Adolph Hitler
Started out Socialist
Outraged by Treaty of Versailles
Forms: National Fascist Party
Fascist: Extreme nationalism - everything for the state, and nothing but the state. Rights of citizens of little to no importance
Strong public speaker - earns seat in parliament
Encourages violence against socialists/communists
1922 - gains power over government
Becomes dictator, turns Italy into totalitarian regime
"Il Duce" (The Leader)
Austrian born
Rough childhood
Joins German Army WWI - successful soldier
Joined "National Socialists" (Nazis)
Powerful speaker
Tries to rule Germany by force
Arrested (serves 9 months of 5yr sentence)
Writes "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle)
1933 - Becomes Chancellor
Using political skill and violence to crush rivals
Builds totalitarian regime as well as military
Mein Kampf
Outlines political plans
Racial declarations
Superior "Aryan Race"
Blames Jews for Germany's struggles
"El Fuehrer" (Leader)
Comes to power through Lenin
Communism already established
Takes over as ruthless leader
"Cult of Personality"
Extremely violent and paranoid
Pushed collectivism
5 Year plans (1933-37)
"Kulaks" protest
Famine - millions die
Paranoia - Gulags (8+ million killed)
Eventually "eats his own"
Officers included - weakens military
Prime Minister of Japan
Leading General
Japan wished to expand territory
Strong sense of nationalism
Gain access to resources
Begins with invasion of China (Manchuria)
(Responsible for attack on Pearl Harbor)
Totalitarianism: TOTAL control by the state (govt.) of a society - public & private
On the Home Front
Japanese American Internment
Many groups targeted for suspicion: Germans/Italians
Japanese considered most dangerous
Executive Order 9066 - gave armed forces the power to establish military zones
Goal was to remove anyone of Japanese heritage from the U.S. West coast.
Included people from CA, WA, OR, AZ
2/3 of people affected were American CITIZENS
Could bring only what they could carry
Suffer financially, physically, psychologically
Alaska also impacted - Aleut Evacuation
Government apology and reimbursement decades later.
St. Paul, AK residents being moved to Alaska panhandle
Aleut cemetery at Funter Bay
WWII Battles
Iwo Jima
V-E Day
The Bombs
Battle of Stalingrad
July 17, 1942-Feb. 1943
Germans attack Russian city of Stalingrad
Russians defend city - at great expense
Over 2 million casualties
Russia will lose over 12 million in war
800,000 civilian casualties
Humiliation for Hitler
Russia firmly allied against the Axis powers
June 6, 1944 Normandy, France
Thousands Allied forces storm the beaches
Hitler delays response
10,000 casualties (6,600 Americans die)
France liberated by August '44
Battle of the Bulge
December 16, 1944
Germany's last attempt to hold ground and regain control
Surprise attack at Bastogne, Belgium
Below zero temps
General Patton relieves
Dec. 26 - hold is broken
South Pacific
Coral Sea
Operation Torch - North Africa
Iwo Jima
750 miles south of Tokyo
Strategic military position
Japanese tunneled in - bunkers, etc.
Was supposed to be easy
7,000 Americans die
20,000 Japanese - only 1,000 survivors
Mt. Suribachi
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day
May 8, 1945
(Hitler commits suicide in Berlin, April 30, 1945)
Celebrations ensue
The Holocaust
noun: holocaust; plural noun: holocausts
*destruction or slaughter on a mass scale, especially caused by fire or nuclear war.
"a nuclear holocaust"
synonyms: cataclysm, disaster, catastrophe; More
*the mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime during the period 1941–45. More than 6 million European Jews, as well as members of other persecuted groups, such as gypsies and homosexuals, were murdered at concentration camps such as Auschwitz.
singular proper noun: Holocaust; noun: the Holocaust
*a Jewish sacrificial offering that is burned completely on an altar.

Middle English: from Old French holocauste, via late Latin from Greek holokauston, from holos ‘whole’ + kaustos ‘burned’ (from kaiein ‘burn’).
Resources & Additional Info.
Prosperity of the 1920's
Post WWI Benefits
Increase in GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
1922-1928 GPD 30%
The Stock Market Expands
Life is good for the consumer/worker
By 1929: 1/5 Americans owned a car
Unemployment at 3%
Reduced dependence on unions
Meanwhile in the United States
"They have a conviction that I am sort of superman, that no problem is beyond my capacity. If some unprecedented calamity should come upon the nation...I would be sacrificed to the unreasoning disappointment of a people who expected too much."
Unequal distribution of wealth
Top 1% saw a 60% growth in income
Most see an approx. 8% growth
Living on credit
Maxing out. By 1929, 70% living below good standard of living.
Vast majority (approx 80%) have NO SAVINGS
Buying on Margin
Buying stock using credit
Federal reserve compromised by big business
Impending Doom
The Crash
Fear of collapse grows
Thursday October 24, 1929
People begin to sell
Friday, October 25, 1929
Bankers prop up the stock market
Monday, October 28, 1929
People aren't buying it
Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929
Market goes through the floor
Drops $16 Billion
Worth approximately 1/2 of prior value
Beginnings in the West:
Germany - 1933
Leaves League of Nations
Announces build up of military & Creation of Air Force
NO one stands up
Italy - 1935
Invades Ethiopia
Free Nations
League of Nations member
NO one stand up
Germany - 1938
Annexes Austria
Annexes Czechoslovakia
League of Nations AGREES!!
Russia - 1939
Nazi-Soviet Pact: splits Poland with Germany
Keeps peace between Russia & Germany (a.k.a. no 2-front war)
Germany invades Poland in 1939 - war is imminent
Beginnings in the East: Japan & Manchuria - 1931
Feb.19-March 26, 1945
The United State Enters The War
December 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor bombed
Thousands killed
U.S. Declares war on Japan
(The Ardennes Forest)
#'s by Country: http://www.annefrankguide.net/en-US/bronnenbank.asp?oid=20747
In the Pacific
Little Boy explodes over Hiroshima, Japan, 6 August 1945 (left);
Fat Man explodes over Nagasaki, Japan, 9 August 1945 (right)
Full transcript