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Transcript of 3D
in American cinema. And then shown in the 1980's and 1990's which was driven by IMAX and Disney themed-venues IMAX Disney 3D films became more and more successful throughout the 2000's, especially with Avatar, who's 2D film was released in December 2009, but then an exclusive deal was made between Twentieth Century Fox and Panasonic – offering buyers of its home entertainment kit a copy of the 3D Blu-ray. Timeline Early patents and tests Early systems of stereoscopic film making (pre-1952) Introduction of Polaroid The "Golden Era" (1952-1955) Rebirth of 3D (1985-2003) World 3-D Expositions Reported audience decline The stereoscopic era of motion pictures began in the late 1890s when British film pioneer William Friese-Greene filed a patent for a 3D movie process. Frederic Eugene Ives patented his stereo camera rig in 1900 two films were projected side by side on screen. The viewer looked through a stereoscope to converge the two images The camera had two lenses coupled together 1 3/4 inches (4.45 centimeters) apart The earliest confirmed 3D film shown to a paying audience was The Power of Love It was projected dual-strip in the red/green anaglyph format, making it both the earliest known film that utilized dual strip projection and the earliest known film in which anaglyph glasses were used December 1922: Teleview was the earliest alternate-frame sequencing form of film projection. Through the use of two interlocked projectors, alternating left/right frames were projected one after another in rapid succession. The late 1920s to early 1930s saw little to no interest in stereoscopic pictures, largely due to the Great Depression While many of these films were printed by color systems, none of them was actually in color, and the use of the color printing was only to achieve an anaglyph effect While attending Harvard University, Edwin H. Land conceived the idea of reducing glare by polarizing light In January 1936, Land gave the first demonstration of Polaroid filters in conjunction with 3D photography at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel - The reaction was enthusiastic Using Polaroid filters meant an entirely new form of projection, however two prints, each carrying either the right or left eye view had to be synced up in projection using an external selsyn motor. Furthermore, polarized light would be largely depolarized by a matte white screen, and only a silver screen or screen made of other reflective material would correctly reflect the separate images. A synchro is a type of rotary electrical transformer that is used for measuring the angle of a rotating machine such as an antenna platform Definition: Selsyn/Synchro selsyn Example of Polaroid pictures from a Polaroid Camera In the 1940s, World War II prioritized military applications of stereoscopic photography and it once again went on the back burner in most producers' minds. The Walt Disney Studios waded into 3D with its May 28, 1953 release of Melody Universal-International released their first 3D feature on May 27, 1953, It Came from Outer Space Columbia released several 3D westerns produced by Sam Katzman and directed by William Castle Another famous entry in the golden era of 3D was the 3 Dimensional Pictures production of Robot Monster The first decline in the theatrical 3D craze started in August and September 1953. The factors causing this decline were: Two prints had to be projected simultaneously The prints had to remain exactly alike after repair, or synchronization would be lost. It sometimes required two projectionists to keep sync working properly When either prints or shutters became out of sync, the picture became virtually unwatchable and accounted for headaches and eyestrain The necessary silver projection screen was very directional and caused sideline seating to be unusable with both 3D and regular films, due to the angular darkening of these screens. Later films that opened in wider-seated venues often premiered flat for that reason The few cartoons made in 3D had a "cardboard cutout" effect, where flat objects appeared on different planes In the mid-1980s, IMAX began producing non-fiction films for its nascent 3D business In 1986, The Walt Disney Company began more prominent use of 3D films in special venues to impress audiences From 1990 onward, numerous films were produced by all three parties to satisfy the demands of their various high-profile special attractions and IMAX's expanding 3D network Other stereoscopic films produced in this period include: The Last Buffalo (Stephen Low, 1990)
Jim Henson's Muppet Vision 3D (Jim Henson, 1991)
Imagine (John Weiley, 1993)
Honey, I Shrunk the Audience (Daniel Rustuccio, 1994)
Into the Deep (Graeme Ferguson, 1995) Higher quality computer animation, competition from DVDs and other media, digital projection, digital video capture, and the use of sophisticated IMAX 70mm film projectors, created an opportunity for another wave of 3D films In September 2003, Sabucat Productions organized the first World 3-D Exposition, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the original craze In May 2006, the second World 3-D Exposition was announced for September of that year, presented by the 3-D Film Preservation Fund In the wake of its initial popularity and corresponding increase in the number of screens, more films are being released in the 3D format. However, industry observers have noted that 2011 showed a considerable decline in audience interest For instance, only 45% of the premiere weekend box office earnings of Kung Fu Panda 2 came from 3D screenings as opposed to 60% for Shrek Forever After in 2010. In addition, the premiere of Cars 2 opening weekend gross consisted of only 37% from 3D theatres. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 and Captain America: The First Avenger were major releases that achieved similar percentages: 43% and 40% respectively Conflicting reasons are respectively offered by studios and exhibitors: whereas the former blame more expensive 3D ticket prices, the latter argue that the quality of movies in general is at fault. Producing 3D Films Displaying 3D Films Live action Animation 2D to 3D conversation Anaglyph Polarization Systems Eclipse Method Interference Filter Technology Autostereoscopy The standard for shooting live-action films in 3D involves using two cameras mounted so that their lenses are about as far apart from each other as the average pair of human eyes, recording two separate images for both the left eye and the right eye In principle, two normal 2D cameras could be put side-to-side but this is problematic in many ways CGI animated films can be rendered as stereoscopic 3D version by using two virtual cameras. Stop-motion 3D films are photographed with two cameras similar to live action 3D films. In the case of 2D CGI animated films that were generated from 3D models, it is possible to return to the models to generate a 3D version. Anaglyph images were the earliest method of presenting theatrical 3D, and the one most commonly associated with stereoscopy by the public at large In an anaglyph, the two images are superimposed in an additive light setting through two filters, one red and one cyan. In a subtractive light setting, the two images are printed in the same complementary colors on white paper. Glasses with colored filters in each eye separate the appropriate images by canceling the filter color out and rendering the complementary color black. To present a stereoscopic motion picture, two images are projected superimposed onto the same screen through different polarizing filters As each filter passes only that light which is similarly polarized and blocks the light polarized differently, each eye sees a different image This is used to produce a three-dimensional effect by projecting the same scene into both eyes, but depicted from slightly different perspectives. Circular polarization has an advantage over linear polarization, in that the viewer does not need to have their head upright and aligned with the screen for the polarization to work properly In the case of RealD a circularly polarizing liquid crystal filter which can switch polarity 144 times per second is placed in front of the projector lens. Polarized stereoscopic pictures have been around since 1936 With the eclipse method, a shutter blocks light from each appropriate eye when the converse eye's image is projected on the screen A variation on the eclipse method is used in LCD shutter glasses. Glasses containing liquid crystal that will let light through in synchronization with the images on the cinema, television or computer screen, using the concept of alternate-frame sequencing Dolby 3D uses specific wavelengths of red, green, and blue for the right eye, and different wavelengths of red, green, and blue for the left eye In this method, glasses are not necessary to see the stereoscopic image Lenticular lens and parallax barrier technologies involve imposing two (or more) images on the same sheet, in narrow, alternating strips, and using a screen that either blocks one of the two images' strips (in the case of parallax barriers) or uses equally narrow lenses to bend the strips of image and make it appear to fill the entire image (in the case of lenticular prints) To produce the stereoscopic effect, the person must be positioned so that one eye sees one of the two images and the other sees the other. Some viewers have complained of headaches and eyestrain after watching 3D films Motion sickness in addition to other health concerns, are more easily induced by 3D presentations There are primarily two effects of 3D film that are unnatural for the human vision: crosstalk between the eyes, caused by imperfect image separation the mismatch between convergence and accommodation, caused by the difference between an object's perceived position in front of or behind the screen and the real origin of that light on the screen It is believed that approximately 12% of people are unable to properly see 3D images, due to a variety of medical conditions The concerns affected such a large portion of audiences that, in 2010, online entrepreneur Hank Green created "2D Glasses", a product designed to combat adverse effects by reversing three-dimensional cinema images into ordinary two-dimensional ones, selling his creation through online retailers Brightness Concerns Post-Conversion Any 3D system will cut down the brightness of the picture considerably – the light loss can be as high as 88%. Some of this loss may be compensated by running the projector’s bulb at higher power or using more powerful bulbs The 2D brightness cinema standard is 14 foot-lamberts (48 candela per square metre) As of 2012, there is no official standard for 3D brightness In September 2012, the DCI standards body issued a "recommended practice" calling for a 3D projection brightness of 7 fL (24 cd/m2), with an acceptable range of 5–9 fL (17–31 cd/m2) Another major criticism is that many of the movies in the 21st century to date were not filmed in 3D, but converted after filming Monster House Life of Pi Silent Hill THE END THANK YOU FOR WATCHING!