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Transcript of Poetry Terminology
The poet is the author of the poem. SPEAKER
The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem. POETRY FORM FORM - the appearance of the words on the page
LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem
STANZA - a group of lines arranged together A word is dead
When it is said,
I say it just
Begins to live
That day. KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = a two line stanza
Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza
Quatrain = a four line stanza
Quintet = a five line stanza
Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza
Septet = a seven line stanza
Octave = an eight line stanza Types of Poetry LYRIC A short poem
Usually written in first person point of view
Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene
Do not tell a story and are often musical NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that tells a story.
Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry because the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. FIGURATIVE
LANGUAGE SIMILE A comparison of two things using “like,” “as,” “than,” or “resembles.”
“She is as beautiful as a sunrise.” METAPHOR A direct comparison of two unlike things
“All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.”
- William Shakespeare Hyperbole Exaggeration often used for emphasis.
Central Ohio is so flat, you can watch your dog run away for days! Litotes Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic.
Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy” Idiom An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says.
Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs. PERSONIFICATION An object given human-like qualities from “Ninki”
by Shirley Jackson
“Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun. IMAGERY Language that appeals to the senses.
Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell. then with cracked hands that ached
from labor in the weekday weather . . .
from “Those Winter Sundays” SYMBOLISM When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else.
= Peace SOUND EFFECTS RHYTHM The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem
Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain. METER A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern.
Count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line.
Pattern repeated throughout the poem METER: A foot? FOOT - unit of meter.
Two or three syllables Usually one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables METER: Feet Types of feet determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables:
Iambic - unstressed, stressed
Trochaic - stressed, unstressed
Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed
Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed Kinds of Metrical Lines monometer = one foot on a line
dimeter = two feet on a line
trimeter = three feet on a line
tetrameter = four feet on a line
pentameter = five feet on a line
hexameter = six feet on a line
heptameter = seven feet on a line
octometer = eight feet on a line FREE VERSE POETRY Free verse poetry does NOT have repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Does NOT have rhyme. Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you. BLANK VERSE POETRY Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme. from Julius Ceasar
Cowards die many times before their deaths;
The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,
It seems to me most strange that men should fear;
Seeing that death, a necessary end,
Will come when it will come. RHYME Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. LAMP
Share the short “a” vowel sound
Share the combined “mp” consonant sound END RHYME A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line
Hector the Collector
Collected bits of string.
Collected dolls with broken heads
And rusty bells that would not ring. INTERNAL RHYME A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary.
From “The Raven”
by Edgar Allan Poe NEAR RHYME Also called: imperfect rhyme, close rhyme
The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH ROSE
Different vowel sounds (long “o” and “oo” sound)
Share the same consonant sound RHYME SCHEME A pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).
Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash
A mighty creature is the germ,
Though smaller than the pachyderm.
His customary dwelling place
Is deep within the human race.
His childish pride he often pleases
By giving people strange diseases.
Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?
You probably contain a germ. a
a ONOMATOPOEIA Words that imitate the sound they are naming (ex: BUZZ)
OR sounds that imitate another sound
“The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of
each purple curtain . . .” ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick? ASSONANCE Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry.
(Often creates near rhyme.)
Lake Fate Base Fade
(All share the long “a” sound.) CONSONANCE Similar to alliteration EXCEPT . . .
The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words
“silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . . “ ASSONANCE cont. Examples of ASSONANCE:
“Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.”
“Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.”
- William Shakespeare REPETITION “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’” A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem.