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Cell Diversity

Unit 2 - The Cell

Barry Heffernan

on 3 November 2015

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Transcript of Cell Diversity

An organ is a structure composed of a number of tissues that work together to carry out one function
Plant organ
A leaf contains three types of tissue: dermal, vascular and ground tissue
Animal organ
The heart is made up of cardiac muscle, surrounded by pericardium and controlled by nervous tissue
Combine with a specific antigen produced by white blood cells
they may be used to attach to and show the presence of antigens on the surface of cancer cells
If toxic drugs are attached to the monoclonal antibodies the drug can be delivered to the cancer cells
Monoclonal antibodies
Tissue culture - is the growth of cells in or on a medium outside an organism
In vitro means outside the body
In vivo means inside the body
Conditions necessary for tissue culture are:
the absence of micro-organisms
food, vitamins and minerals
hormones to stimulate growth
Tissue culture
Nervous tissue
is made up of nerve cells called neurons
the function of neurons is to carry electrical impulses to and from the brain
There are four main types of animal tissue: epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissue

Connective tissue
consists of a number of cells spread out in a matrix
it joins and supports body structures
examples are adipose tissue, blood, cartilage and bone
Animal tissues
Vascular tissue
Xylem - consists of hollow tubes that run from the root to the leaves. The function of xylem is to transport water and minerals up the plant

Phloem - consists of many tube like structures and is found in the leaves, stems and roots. The function of phloem is to transport food from the leaves to other parts of the plant
There are four types of plant cells: dermal, vascular, ground and meristematic tissue.

Dermal tissue
is a single layer of cells surrounding the surface of the plant
they are rectangular cells with a thick outer layer called the cuticle
the function of dermal tissue is to protect the plant and prevent water loss
Plant cells
A Tissue - is a group of similar cells that are modified to carry out the same function
Cell Diversity
Micropropagation - is the growth of large numbers of plants from plant tissue, producing genetically identical plants

Benefits of micropropagation -
a large number of plants are produced
plants produced are genetically identical
inexpensive way to mass produce plants
Applications of tissue culture
Learning Check
What is a tissue?
Name two types of plant tissue and give their function.
Name two types of animal tissue and give their function.
Learning Check
What is tissue culture?
Name one application of tissue culture.
Give one advantage of the tissue culture you have named.
What is an organ?
Name one plant organ and one animal organ.
Full transcript