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Phonological Awareness

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caryn wasserman-fleming

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of Phonological Awareness

Phonological Awareness
and Phonics

Development of

Now, let's take a look at how your child becomes phonologically aware...
Activities that
promote Phonological Awareness
Now that you have a better understanding of the importance of developing phonological awareness, let's explore some of the activities we will be using...
Part I


There are about 45 phonemes (smallest unit of sound) in the English language but we can manipulate these phonemes in an infinite amount of ways to create words.

Words are created by arranging phonemes, deleting phonemes and substituting phonemes. For example putting the letters /f/, /a/, & /t/ together makes up
. Replace the /f/ with a /p/ and you have
. Remove the /p/ and you have the word
Learning to read & spell is a process of matching oral and written language at three different levels...
Development sequence of phonemic awareness
What is
Phonological awareness ?
This is a very broad term. Simply put, phonological
awareness refers to your child's understanding that
spoken words are made up of sounds.
It is the understanding of speech sounds rather
than the word or the meaning.

Elements of phonological awareness
are: syllables, rhyme and individual
phonemes (the smallest unit of speech).

When children play with language, for example, by
repeating syllables like fat, cat, mat, & bat,
they are demonstrating an awareness
of the phonological element of rhyme.
Level 1: Global
Level 3:
Sounds within Words
By the time children progress to this stage, they understand that there are sounds within words and syllables.

At this point, children no longer look at the overall, global view and no longer do they look at the phrase or sentence itself. Children are now looking at the individual sounds that make up each specific letter.
Level 2: Word
At this point, children understand that specific words exist within phrases and sentences.
The development of phonological awareness begins right here at this stage which is a very general overview of communication.

At this stage of development, your child is aware that text is organized into phrases and sentences.
Think about an infant or toddler that babbles or mimics speech. They have a global understanding that is developing through experience with oral language.
This stage, also known as
phonemic awareness
, requires the most specific and precise skills in order to understand
the specific sounds within words
and syllables.
At this age, children
become aware of words as
units of sound as they play
with sounds and create
rhymes. While it may seem like nonsense words, they are developing language and becoming aware of sound.
Children pronounce sounds and
isolate, match, and manipulate
them as they learn to blend
and segment. They are matching and manipulating words.
1st Grade
Children use the blending
strategy to decode words
and the segmenting
strategy to spell words. For example,
What word is made up of the sounds
/k/ /a/ /t/? "cat"
2nd Grade
Children at this age use blending
and segmenting to decode and spell
more challenging words.
3rd Grade
Children apply phonemic awareness
strategies to decode and spell two- and three-syllable words.
Developmental Continuum
Tompkins, p. 97)
4th Grade
Fourth graders blend and
segment sounds as they
read and spell multisyllabic
words with root words
and affixes (e.g.,
-ed or -es at the end of a pluralized word).
Activities that promote
phonological awareness...
Word Play Books
Making up silly rhymes and playing with words is a great way for your children to work on developing phonemic awareness. We start off by reading the book. Then, we will reread these books and your childrens' attention centers around the word play elements. Asking questions like "did you notice that
rhyme?" and encouraging them to find the rhymes is a great activity.
Blending Sounds
Children blend two, three, or four individual sounds to form a word; the teacher says /b/ /˘ı/ /g/, for example, and the children repeat the sounds, blending them to form
the word big.
Syllable Ball
Pronouce a word breaking up and
enunciating each syllable
(e.g. mo-ter-cy-cle)
and throw a ball or bean bag to a student.
The student then throws the ball back to
the teacher while responding "motorcycle."

Clap to count syllables
The teacher will say a word and the students will then clap the word while breaking it into syllables. Students will write down the amount of syllables that they clapped. For example, I will say "pajamas" and the students will clap out "pa-ja-mas." I will ask "how many syllables?" and the students will write down a number 3.
Substituting Sounds
Sound out words for students, breaking them up by onset (first sound) and rime (end sound) and have students respond with the word you are sounding out.

Select words that can be easily broken up by onset and rime and say, for example, "it begins with /b/ and ends in /at/, put the sounds together and they say _______." Then go on to "it begins with /f/ and ends in /at, put the sounds together and they say _______."
Mind Reader
The teacher will ask the students to read her mind by saying, for example, "what am I thinking of? It is something I can drink with my lunch and it starts with /m/ (making the mmm sound). When students become more phonologically aware, provide the rime (end sound) instead saying "it ends in /ilk/."
Blending Syllables Name Game
Phonological Awareness Assessments

I will be monitoring your children as they participate in activities that demonstrate their ability to manipulate sounds.

I will be conducting informal assessments throughout the school year. The reason for this is so that I can monitor your child's progress, keep track of their strengths, and to know when and how they need help, and determine their mastery of skills. The results of the assessments are used to guide my next steps in instructing your child.
Phonological Awareness

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
This assessment measures your child's ability to recognize and produce the initial sound in a word that is presented orally. For example, I will say "this is a picture of a cat, a horse, and a pig. Which one starts with /s/?"

The other DIBELS subtest for phonemic awareness is the Phoneme Segmentation Fluency that measures your child's ability to segment phonemes. For example, when I say sat, your child should respond /s/, /a/, /t/.
Test of Phonological Awareness (TPA)

This 40 minute test is used to measure the ability of segregating sounds in spoken words.
It will determine your child's understanding of the relationship between letters and phonemes.

Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening System

This is an oral assessment that will determineyour child's ability to segment the phonemes in words.

Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation

This assesses rhyme awareness and knowledge of beginning sounds. The student must repeat individual words, while taking a clear pause between each phoneme in the word. It is used to assess phonemic awareness at the kindergarten level, as well as 1st-3rd grade and only takes 10-15 minutes to administer.
Language Differences
An example of how your child's assessments are typically conducted:
Part II:
As we move on to discuss phonics, there are some terms that might be unfamiliar to you. Let's explore them now, since we will be using this terminology often.
Terminology we will be using this year:
: a unit of meaning; a syllable or a combination of syllables and may contain a smaller unit of meaning within it.

: units of spoken language that consists of a vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by several consonants.

: the initial consonant(s) sound of a single syllable or word. For example, the onset of
is /b/ and the onset of
is /fr/.

: the rime unit is comprised of the vowel and any following consonants within a syllable. The rime of
is /un/ and the rime of
is /iend/.

: the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. The words
both start with the phoneme /n/.

: Letters that are not vowels (a, e, i, o, and u). Consonant sounds are known for their noise and the way in which air is constricted as it is stopped and released or
forced through the vocal tract, mouth, teeth, and lips.

: A speech sound produced by the easy passage of air through a relatively open vocal tract. Vowels form the most central sound of a syllable. In English, vowel sounds are represented by the following letters: a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y.
Layers of Orthography
what does
"orthography" mean?
orthography is defined as the writing system of a language—specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols (Bear, 411).
The Layers of
Orthography are:
Alphabetic Layer
Our spelling system is alphabetic because it represents the relationship between letters and sounds. This relationship moves in a left to right sequence. In the alphabetic stage, each sound is represented by a single letter and are blended to create a word (e.g.,
is represented by /b/ /a/ /t/). It is in this layer where students learn not only consonant sounds; they are also introduced to short vowel sounds and diagraphs. This is where phonemic awareness is strengthened; students learn how to segment sound in simple words using the initial middle and ending sound (Bear, 5).
Meaning Layer
This component of word study focuses on vocabulary development as well as spelling. As students move on to more sophisticated words, they learn about how groups of letters can represent meaning directly (i.e. prefixes, suffixes, greek/latin roots). Word study in this sense starts to look different, it is more advanced (Bear,6).

Pattern Layer
As orthographic knowledge develops we move beyond the alphabet and we teach students how to extend their word knowledge by presenting them with word patterns.

Activities that
phonics knowledge
A Digraph A Word
Students blend sounds of letters to make words. Students segment names of pictures into phonemes and use the corresponding letter tiles to spell the word. Taking turns, student one selects the top card from the stack, names it, and segments it into individual phonemes (e.g., “fish, /f//i//sh/”).
Student one says the sounds of each letter(s), blends them, and reads the word orally
(i.e., “/f//i//sh/, fish”). Both students record the word on their paper & continue until all words are recorded.
This encoding and decoding activity uses consonant and vowel cards to make words. Students take turns selecting cards. They say the sounds of each letter and blend them to make a word. For example, the student will say "/b/ /u/ /g/, - bug."
Word Checkers
Students use high frequency word cards while playing checkers. Students take turns and read the word on the square of the board they land on. If the player reads the word correctly, the checker stays on that square. If it is read incorrectly, the checker returns to the previous square.
Alphabet Borders
This is a letter recognition phonics activity. Students play by matching letters of the alphabet and naming them as they go. In this game students are matching upper case, lower case and pictures of items that begin with that letter.
Onset & Rime Slide
This is an onset and rime phonics activity where students blend the onset and rime letters that are on slides to make a word. Students then record the word on one of two columns: real words or nonsense words.
Phonics Assessments
Assessments are conducted on a regular basis throughout the year. The informal assessments that I conduct are data-based. I use this data to determine your child's development with phonics knowledge, monitor progress, determine strengths and areas of deficit and also to determine how I will instruct as we move forward. This data is maintained and will be discussed during parent/teacher conferences.

Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M. R., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2012). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary and spelling instruction (5th edition), Boston: Pearson.

Moats, L. ,Tolman, C. (2009). The Development of Phonological Skills. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/28759

Phonic Elements. (2004). Reading Rockets. Retrieved from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/87

Tompkins, G. E. (2011). Literacy in the early grades: A successful start for pre K-4 readers (3rd edition), Boston: Pearson.

Schumm, J. (2006). Reading Assessment and Instruction for All Learners. New York: Guilford Press.

Seuss, Dr. (1963). Hop on Pop. New York: Beginner Books.

Thomasteammom (2013, January 24). Assessing Phonological Awareness Part 3 (video file).Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?vOm7QRohKKqu

Comprehensive phonics Assessment, retieved from http://dancophonics.weebly.com/uploads/9/3/5/0/9350230/6542832_orig.png
Examples of Phonemic Awareness Skills
: What word rhymes with "rat"?
Sound/Word discrimination
: What word doesn't belong with the others: "hat", "rat", "fat", "pan"?
Syllable splitting
: The onset (beginning) of "cat" is /k/, the rime is /at/
: What word is made up of the sounds /r/ /a/ /t/?
Phonemic segmentation
: What are the sounds in
? /r/ /a/ /t/

Your child will be presented with a word like
and will be expected to segment it as /c/, /a/, /t/.
For students who are not native English speakers, we can expect some challenges in their development of phonological awareness. Remember when we discussed that this development begins with infants and toddlers being exposed to oral language?
Remember, English Language Learners were
not exposed to experiences with
the english language.

It is a teacher's responsibility to understand
the needs of an English Language Learner. Here are some of the strategies that we use in our class to ensure that our students with language differences are provided with appropriate supports:

explicit instruction
small group work and cooperative learning groups (peer role models)
reading aloud (modeling language)
Authentic literacy activities
build background knowledge
provide opportunities to practice difficult sounds in context.
and, of course, always show respect for the student's native language.
Speech sounds differ from language to language. There are many English Language Learners who cannot understand conflicting vowel sounds. Consonants, similarly, can make different sounds in a student's native language and some phonemes might not exist in their native language. The blending of sounds can also be a significant challege for students with language differences.
What guides my
phonics instruction?
Administering informal assessments on a regular basis throughout the school year provides useful information that can help teachers to identify the individual strengths and weakness of each student — and most importantly, guide the next steps in instruction. Phonic elemements should be assessed several times throughout the year in grades one through three to help guide instruction (Reading Rockets, 2004).
CORE Phonics Survey
Assesses the phonics and phonics-related skills that have a high rate of application in emerging readers. Each survey presents letters/words to be identified & decoded.

Roswell-Chall Diagnostic Reading Test
Subtests to assess phonics for students in grades 1-4

Decoding Skills Test
Subtests for phonics include phonic pattern knowledge and phonic decoding deficiencies.

Names Test
This assessment is used as an alternative to nonsense word phonics assessments. The students is directed to read a list of words and when there is an incorrect pronunciation, the teacher will analyze phonic patterns to determine instruction.
this is the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds, which are called phonemes.
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