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AP World History Review
Transcript of AP World History Review
Green Belt in Kenya
People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender, and religion, often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions.
The notion of human rights gained traction throughout the world.
The U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The end of the White Australia Policy
Increased interactions among diverse peoples sometimes led to the formation of new cultural identities and exclusionary reactions.
New cultural identities
Race riots Key Concept 6.3: New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Humanitarian organizations developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.
The Red Cross
Doctors Without Borders
World Health Organization (WHO)
Regional trade agreements created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders.
The European Union
Multinational corporations began to challenge state authority and autonomy.
Royal Dutch Shell
Sony Key Concept 6.3: New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture In newly independent states after World War II, governments often took on a strong role in guiding economic life to promote development.
Nasser’s promotion of economic development in Egypt
The encouragement of export-oriented economies in East Asia
At the end of the 20th century, many governments encouraged free market economic policies and promoted economic liberalization.
The United States beginning with Ronald Reagan
Britain under Margaret Thatcher
China under Deng Xiaoping
Chile under Pinochet
States, communities, and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of institutions of global governance.
New international organizations formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.
The League of Nations
The United Nations
The International Criminal Court
New economic institutions sought to spread the principals and practices associated with free market economies throughout the world. Key Concept 6.3: New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture The 20th century witnessed a great deal of warfare and the collapse of the global economy in the 1930s. In response to these challenges, the role of state in the domestic economy fluctuated, and new institutions of global governance emerged and continued to develop throughout the century. Scientific breakthroughs, new technologies, increasing levels of integration, changing relationships between humans and the environment, and the frequency of political conflict all contributed to global developments in which people crafted new understandings of society, culture, and historical interpretations. These new understandings often manifested themselves in, and were reinforced by, new forms of cultural production. Institutions of global governance both shaped and adapted to these social conditions.
States responded in a variety of ways to the economic challenges of the twentieth century.
In the Communist states of the Soviet Union and China, governments controlled their national economies.
The Five-Year Plans
The Great Leap Forward
At the beginning of the century in the United States and parts of Europe, governments played a minimal role in their national economies. With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in economic life.
The New Deal
The Fascist corporatist economy Key Concept 6.3: New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture The Tiananmen Square protesters that promoted democracy in China
Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict.
The promotion of military dictatorship in Chile, Spain, and Uganda
The United States’ promotion of a New World Order after the Cold War
The buildup of the “military-industrial complex” and arms trading
More movements used violence against civilians to achieve political aims
Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture.
Socialist Realism (communist, stalinism, propaganda)
Video games Key Concept 6.2: Global Conflicts and Their Consequences Groups and individuals challenged the many wars of the century, and some promoted the practice of nonviolence as a way to bring about political change.
Groups and individuals
Picasso in his Guernica
The antinuclear movement during the Cold War
Thich Quang Duc by self-immolation
Martin Luther King
Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives to the existing economic, political, and social orders
Communist leaders such as Vladimir Lenin and Mao Zedong
The Non-Aligned Movement, which presented an alternative political bloc to the Cold War
The Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa
Participants in the global uprisings of 1968 Key Concept 6.2: Global Conflicts and Their Consequences The proliferation of conflicts led to various forms of ethnic violence and the displacement of peoples resulting in refugee populations.
Displacement of peoples
Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale.
WW I and WWII were the first “total war.” Governments used ideologies, including fascism, nationalism, and communism, to mobilize all of their state’s resources, including peoples, both in the home countries and the colonies or former colonies, for the purpose of waging war. Governments also used a variety of strategies, including political speeches, art, media, and intensified forms of nationalism, to mobilize these populations.
The Gurkha soldiers in India Key Concept 6.2: Global Conflicts and Their Consequences Some colonies achieved independence through armed struggle.
Algeria and Vietnam from the French empire
Angola from the Portuguese empire
Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states.
Nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule.
Ho Chi Minh
Regional, religious, and ethnic movements challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
The Quebecois separatist movement
The Biafra secessionist movement
Transnational movements sought to unite people across national boundaries. Key Concept 6.2: Global Conflicts and Their Consequences HIV/AIDS
More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility and transformed sexual practices.
Improved military technology and new tactics led to increased levels of wartime casualties.
Improved military technology
The atomic bomb
Hiroshima Key Concept 6.1: Science and the Environment Medical innovations increased the ability of humans to survive.
The polio vaccine
The artificial heart
Energy technologies including the use of oil and nuclear power raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.
As the global population expanded at an unprecedented rate, humans fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment.
Humans exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than ever before in human history.
Global warming was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere.
Pollution threatened the world’s supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continuing consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply.
Disease, scientific innovations, and conflict led to demographic shifts.
Diseases associated with poverty persisted, while other diseases emerged as new epidemics and threats to human survival. In addition, changing lifestyles and increased longevity led to higher incidence of certain diseases.
The 1918 influenza pandemic
Ebola Key Concept 6.1: Science and the Environment Rapid advances in science altered the understanding of the universe and the natural world and led to the development of new technologies. These changes enabled unprecedented population growth, which altered how humans interacted with the environment and threatened delicate ecological balances at local, regional, and global levels.
Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technology.
New modes of communication and transportation virtually eliminated the problem of geographic distance.
New scientific paradigms transformed human understanding of the world.
The theory of relativity
The Big Bang theory
The Green Revolution produced food for the earth’s growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture. Key Concept 6.1: Science and the Environment Accelerating Global Change and Realignments, c. 1900 to the Present Period 6 Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.
Migrants often created ethnic enclaves in different parts of the world which helped transplant culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.
Chinese in Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, South America, and North America
Indians in East and southern Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia
Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people across their borders.
The Chinese Exclusion Acts
The White Australia Policy Key Concept 5.4: Global Migration Chinese and Indian indentured servitude
While many migrants permanently relocated, a significant number of temporary and seasonal migrants returned to their home societies.
Japanese agricultural workers in the Pacific
Lebanese merchants in the Americas
Italians in Argentina
The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the nineteenth century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations. Key Concept 5.4: Global Migration Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people benefited economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. In both cases, migration produced dramatically different societies for both sending and receiving societies, and presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people.
Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demography in both industrialized and unindustrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living.
Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population.
Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the nineteenth century.
Migrants relocated for a variety of reasons
Many individuals chose freely to relocate, often in search of work.
The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration.
YOU MUST KNOW
Slavery Key Concept 5.4: Global Migration The Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement
Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms in imperial policies.
The Tanzimat movement
The Self-Strengthening Movement
The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.
Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies, including liberalism, socialism, and communism.
Demands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies.
Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Olympe de Gouge’s “Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen”
The resolutions passed at the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848 Key Concept 5.3: Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform French Revolution
Latin American independence movements
Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas
The establishment of Maroon societies.
Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements.
The Indian Revolt of 1857
The Boxer Rebellion
Some of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism.
The Taiping Rebellion
The Ghost Dance Key Concept 5.3: Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform Beginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations.
Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.
Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments.
The challenge of the Marathas to the Mughal Sultans.
American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States, Haiti, and mainland Latin America. French subjects rebelled against their monarchy.
YOU MUST KNOW
American Revolution Key Concept 5.3: Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform The eighteenth century (1700s) marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and anti-imperial tendencies of this period.
The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments.
Thinkers applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life.
Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation.
Enlightenment thinkers developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract. Key Concept 5.3: Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform The British and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium Wars
The British and the United States investing heavily in Latin America
Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world
The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan
The United States and Russia emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories.
Anti-imperial resistance led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire.
The establishment of independent states in the Balkans
Semi-independence in Egypt, French and Italian colonies in North Africa
Later British influence in Egypt Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation German
Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa.
Britain in West Africa
Belgium in the Congo
In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies.
The British in southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand
The French in Algeria
In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialism. Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation As states industrialized, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.
Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires.
State with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies.
British in India
Dutch in Indonesia
European states, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires throughout Asia and Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.
French Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization.
The economic reforms of Meiji Japan
The development of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia
China’s Self-Strengthening movement
Muhammad Ali’s development of a cotton textile industry in Egypt
In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism, some governments mitigated the negative effects of industrial capitalism by promoting various types of reforms.
State pensions and public health in Germany
Expansion of suffrage in Britain
Public education in many states
The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy.
New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed.
Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization.
Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community Key Concept 5.1: Industrialization and Global Capitalism The United Fruit Company
The HSBC—Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
There were major developments in transportation and communication.
YOU MUST KNOW
The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses.
In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions of society.
In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production. Key Concept 5.1: Industrialization and Global Capitalism Metals and minerals
The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economies.
Textile production India
The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets for their finished goods.
British and French attempts to “open up” the Chinese market during the nineteenth century
The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centers.
Copper mines in Mexico
Gold and diamond mines in South Africa
To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions.
The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.
Financial instruments expanded.
Limited liability corporations
The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational business. Key Concept 5.1: Industrialization and Global Capitalism New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.
The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.
Guano Key Concept 5.1: Industrialization and Global Capitalism Improved agricultural productivity
Legal protection of private property
An abundance of rivers and canals
Access to foreign resources
The accumulation of capital
The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.
The developed of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.
As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, the spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.
The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century. Key Concept 5.1: Industrialization and Global Capitalism Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture. Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global.
Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced.
A variety of factors led to the rise of industrial production.
YOU MUST KNOW
Europe’s location on the Atlantic Ocean
The geographical distribution of coal, iron, and timber
European demographic changes
Urbanization Key Concept 5.1: Industrialization and Global Capitalism Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900 Period 5 Europeans established new trading-post empires in Africa and Asia, which proved profitable for the rulers and merchants involved in new global trade networks, but these empires also affected the power of the states in interior West and Central Africa
Land empires expanded dramatically in size
YOU MUST KNOW
European states established new maritime empires in the Americas
YOU MUST KNOW
Competition over trade routes, state rivalries, and local resistance all provide significant challenges to state consolidation and expansion.
Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Thirty Years War
Peasant uprisings Key Concept 4.3: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion Songhay promotion of Islam
Chinese emperors’ public performance of Confucian rituals
States treated different ethnic and religious groups in ways that utilized their economic contributions while limiting their ability to challenge the authority of the state.
Ottoman treatment of non-Muslim subjects
Manchu policies toward Chinese
Spanish creation of a separate “Republica de Indios”
Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals, became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources.
Chinese examination system
Rulers used tribute collection and tax farming to generate revenue for territorial expansion.
Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to established large empires in both hemispheres. Key Concept 4.3: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion The Manchus in China
Creole elites in Spanish America
Urban commercial entrepreneurs in all major port cities in the world
The power of existing political and economic elites fluctuated as they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders.
The zamindars in the Mughal Empire
The nobility in Europe
The daimyo in Japan
Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred, including the demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the slave trades.
The dependence of European men on Southeast Asian women for conducting trade in that region
The smaller size of European families
The massive demographic changes in the Americas resulted in new ethnic and racial classifications.
Creole 4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production The growth of the plantation economy increased the demand for slaves in the Americas.
Colonial economies in the Americas depended on a range of coerced labor.
Encomienda and hacienda systems
The Spanish adaptation of the Inca mit’a
As new social and political elites changed, they also restructured new ethnic, racial, and gender hierarchies.
Both imperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the formation of new political and economic elites. 4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production Major changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of manufacturing, gender and social structures, and environmental processes. A surge in agricultural productivity resulted from new methods in crop and field rotation and the introduction of new crops. Economic growth also depended on new forms of manufacturing and new commercial patterns, especially in long-distance trade. Political and economic centers within the regions shifted, and merchant’s social status tended to rise in various states. Demographic growth—even in areas such as the Americas, where disease ravaged the population—was restored by the eighteenth century and surged in many regions, especially with the introduction of American food crops throughout the Eastern Hemisphere. The Columbian Exchange led to new ways of humans interacting with their environments. New forms of coerced and semi-coerced labor emerged in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, and affected ethnic and racial classifications and gender roles. 4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by royal chartered European monopoly companies that took silver from Spanish colonies in the Americas to purchase Asian goods for the Atlantic markets, but regional markets continued to flourish in Afro-Eurasia by using established commercial practices and new transoceanic shipping services developed by European merchants.
European merchant’s role in Asian trade was characterized mostly by transporting goods from one Asian country to another market in Asia or the Indian Ocean region.
Commercialization and the creation of a global economy were intimately connected to a new global circulation of silver from the Americas.
Influenced by mercantilism, joint-stock companies were new methods used by European rulers to control their domestic and colonial economies and by European merchants to compete against one another in global trade.
The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and free and unfree laborers, and the mixing of African, American, and European cultures and peoples. Key Concept 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange Remarkable new transoceanic maritime reconnaissance occurred in this period.
Official Chinese maritime activity expanded into the Indian Ocean region with the naval voyages led by Ming Admiral Zheng He, which enhanced Chinese prestige.
Portuguese development of a school for navigation led to increased travel to and trade with West Africa, and resulted in the constriction of a global trading-post empire.
Spanish sponsorship of the first Columbian and subsequent voyages across the Atlantic and Pacific dramatically increased European interest in transoceanic travel and trade.
Northern Atlantic crossings for fishing and settlements continued and spurred European searches for multiple routes to Asia.
In Oceania and Polynesia, established exchange and communication networks were not dramatically affected because of infrequent European reconnaissance in the Pacific Ocean. Key Concept 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange Global Interactions, c. 1450 to c. 1750 Period 4 Various forms of coerced and unfree labor
Government-imposed labor taxes
As in the previous period, social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies. Patriarchy persisted; however, in some areas, women exercised more power and influence, most notably among the Mongols and in West Africa, Japan, and Southeast Asia.
New forms of coerced labor appeared, including serfdom in Europe and Japan and the elaboration of the mit’a in the Inca Empire. Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.
The Byzantine Empire
The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and Neoconfucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure. Key Concept 3.3: Increased Economics Productive Capacity and Its Consequences The availability of safe and reliable transport
The rise of commerce and the warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300
Increased agricultural productivity and subsequent rising population
Greater availability of labor also contributed to urban growth
Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
As in the previous period, there many forms of labor organization.
YOU MUST KNOW:
Free peasant agriculture
Craft production and guild organization Key Concept 3.3: Increased Economics Productive Capacity and Its Consequences The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline, and with periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.
Multiple factors contributed to the declines of urban areas in this period.
YOU MUST KNOW:
The decline of agricultural productivity
The Little Ice Age
Multiple factors contributed to urban revival
YOU MUST KNOW:
The end of invasions Key Concept 3.3: Increased Economics Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Adaptations of religious institutions
In some places, new forms of governance emerged, including those developed in various Islamic states, the Mongol Khanates, city-states, and decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan.
In the Italian peninsula
In East Africa
In Southeast Asia
In the Americas
Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions.
Persian traditions that influenced Islamic states
Chinese traditions that influenced states in Japan
In the Americas, as in Afro-Eurasia, state systems expanded in scope and reach: Networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region and, at the end of the period, imperial systems were created by the Mexica (“Aztecs”) and Inca.
Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.
YOU MUST KNOW:
Between Tang China and the Abbasids
Across the Mongol empires
During the Crusades Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions In Afro-Eurasian, some states attempted, with differing degrees of success, to preserve or revive imperial structures, while smaller, less centralized states continued to develop. The expansion of Islam introduced a new concept-the Caliphate-to Afro-Eurasian statecraft. Pastoral peoples in Eurasia built powerful and distinctive empires that integrated people and institutions from both the pastoral and agrarian worlds. In the Americas, powerful states developed in both Mesoamerica and Andean region.
Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged.
Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, including the Byzantine Empire and Chinese dynasties-Sui, Tang, and Song-combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations better suited to the current circumstances.
Traditional sources of power and legitimacy
New methods of taxation
Tributary systems Key Concept 3.2: Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia
Toltec/Mexica and Inca traditions in Mesoamerica and Andean America
Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions.
Influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars
The return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andauls in Iberia
The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe
There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes.
New foods and agricultural techniques were adopted in populated areas.
Bananas in Africa
New rice varieties in East Asia
The spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin
The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well established paths of trade and military conquest. Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks The writings of certain interregional travelers illustrate both the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding.
Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions.
The influence of Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East Asia
Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks YOU MUST KNOW:
Migration of Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitated transmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa
The maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as the moved to new islands.
Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages throughout a new region of the emergence of new languages.
The spread of Bantu languages including Swahili
The spread of Turkic and Arabic languages
Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication. Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Hanseatic League
The expansion of empires facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.
YOU MUST KNOW:
The Byzantine Empire
The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.
The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations to it.
Scandinavian Vikings used their longships to travel in coastal and open waters as well as in rivers and estuaries.
The Arabs and Berbers adapted camels to travel across and around the Sahara.
The Central Asian pastoral groups used horses to travel in the steppes.
Some migrations had a significant environmental impact. Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Caravan organization
Credit and monetization
Bills of exchange
Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices, trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China.
Minting of coins
Use of paper money
Trading organizations Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.
Existing trade routes flourished and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities.
YOU MUST KNOW:
The Silk Road
The Mediterranean Sea
The Indian Ocean basins
The Swahili city-states Hangzhou
Cahokia Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Afro-Eurasia and the Americas are still separated, this era still witnessed a deepening and widening of old and new networks of human interaction within and across regions. The results were unprecedented concentrations of wealth and the intensification of cross-cultural exchanges. Innovations in transportation, state policies, and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies. Pastoral or nomadic groups played a key role in creating and sustaining these networks. Expanding networks fostered greater interregional borrowing, while at the same time sustaining regional diversity. The prophet Muhammad promoted Islam, a new major monotheistic religion at the start of this period. It spread quickly through practices of trade, warfare, and diffusion characteristic of this period. Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450 Period 3 Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange.
The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East, encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques.
The qanat system
The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires.
The effects of disease on the Roman Empire
The effects of disease on Chinese empires
Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread.
YOU MUST KNOW:
Buddhism Key Concept 2.3: Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange
New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes.
New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange
New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes.
Innovations in maritime technologies, as well as advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds, stimulated exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia
Dhow ships Key Concept 2.3: Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange With the organization of large-scale empires, the volume of long-distance trade increased dramatically. There was a demand for raw materials and luxury goods. Land and water routes linked many regions of the Eastern Hemisphere. The exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed alongside the trade in goods across far-flung networks of communication and exchange. In the Americas and Oceania localized networks developed.
Land and water routes became the basis for transregional trade, communication, and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Many factors, including the climate and location of the routes, the typical trade goods, and the ethnicity of people involved, shaped the distinctive features of variety of trade routes.
YOU MUST KNOW:
Eurasian Silk Roads
Trans-Saharan caravan routes
Indian Ocean sea lanes
Mediterranean sea lanes Key Concept 2.3: Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and transformation into successor empires or states.
Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites.
External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions.
Between Han China and the Xiongnu
Between the Gupta and the White Huns
Between the Romans and their northern and eastern neighbors Key Concept 2.2: The Development of States and Empires Alexandria
The social structures of empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.
Imperial societies relied on range of methods to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites.
Rents and tributes
Family and household production
Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period. Key Concept 2.2: The Development of States and Empires Developing Supply lines
Building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads
Drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from the local populations or conquered peoples
Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.
Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas.
Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires.
Rome Key Concept 2.2: The Development of States and Empires The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states.
YOU SHOULD KNOW:
Southwest Asia: Persian Empires
East Asia: Qin and Han Empire
South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires
Mediterranean region: Phoenicia and its colonies, Greek city-states and colonies, and Hellenistic and Roman Empires
Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya city-states
Andean South America: Moche Key Concept 2.2: The Development of States and Empires Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments.
Literature and drama acquired distinctive forms that influenced artistic developments in neighboring regions and in later time periods.
Distinctive architectural styles developed in many regions in this period.
The Roman Empire
The Convergence of Greco-Roman culture and Buddhist beliefs affected the development of unique sculptural developments. Key Concept 2.1: The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions The core beliefs about desire, suffering, and the search for enlightenment preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were, in part, a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia—first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants, and the establishment of educational institutions to promote core teachings.
Confucianism’s core beliefs and writings originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciples who sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China, including the rulers.
In the major Daoist writings, the core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daoism also influenced the development of Chinese culture.
Medical theories and practices
Metallurgy Key Concept 2.1: The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Religions and belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by. These shared beliefs also influenced and reinforced political, economic, and occupational stratification. Religious and political authority often merged as rulers (some of whom were considered divine) used religion, along with military and legal structures, to justify their rule and ensure its continuation. Religions and belief systems could also generate conflict, partly because beliefs and practices varied greatly within and among societies.
Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.
Monotheism and Judaism come closer together with the codification of the Hebrew Scriptures, which also reflected the influence of Mesopotamian cultural and legal traditions. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquered various Jewish states at different points in time. These conquests contributed to the growth of Jewish diasporic communities around the Mediterranean and Middle East.
The Sanskrit scriptures formed the basis of the Vedic religions—later known as Hinduism—which contributed to the development of the social and political roles of a caste system and in the importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation.
New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths. Key Concept 2.1: The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Period 2 Key Concept 1.3: The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies New weapons
New modes of transportation
Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art.
Early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning
Streets and roads
Sewage and water systems
Elites, both political and religious, promoted arts and artisanship.
Systems of record keeping arose independently in all early civilizations and subsequently were diffused.
Cuneiform Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished.
YOU SHOULD KNOW:
Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys
Egypt in the Nile River Valley
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley
Shang in the Yellow River or Huange He Valley
Olmecs in Mesoamerica
Chavin in Andean South America
The first states emerged within core civilizations
States were powerful new systems of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas. Early states were often led by a ruler whose source of power was believed to be divine or had divine support and/or who was supported by the military.
States grew and competed for land and resources, the more favorably suited (ex: the Hittites, who had access to iron) had greater access to resources, produced more surplus food, and experienced growing populations. They took over territory and conquered surrounding states.
Early regions of state expansion or empire building were Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and the Nile Valley.
Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons and modes of transportation that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations. Key Concept 1.3: The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies The term civilization is normally used to designate large societies with cities and powerful states. They all produced agricultural surpluses that permitted significant specialization of labor. They all contained cities and generated complex institutions, such as political bureaucracies, armies, and religious hierarchies. They also featured clearly stratified social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships. Economic exchanges intensified within and between civilizations, as well as with nomadic pastoralists.
As populations grew, competition for surplus resources, especially food, led to greater social stratification, specialization of labor, increased trade, more complex systems of government and religion, and the development of record keeping. As civilizations expanded, they had to balance their need for more resources with environmental constraints such as the danger of undermining soil fertility. Finally the accumulation of wealth in settled communities spurred warfare between communities and/or with pastoralists; this violence drove the development of new technologies of war and urban defense. Key Concept 1.3: The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies YOU MUST KNOW: improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation:
Wheels and wheeled vehicles
In both pastoralist and agrarian societies, elite groups accumulated wealth, creating more hierarchical social structures and promoting patriarchal forms of social organization. Pastoralism developed at various sites in the grasslands of Afro-Eurasia
Different crops or animals were domesticated in the various core regions, depending on available local flora and fauna
Agricultural communities had to work cooperatively to clear land and create the water control systems needed for crop production.
These agricultural practices drastically impacted environmental diversity. Pastoralists also affected the environment by grazing large numbers of animals on fragile grasslands, leading to erosion when over grazed.
Agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies.
Pastoralism and agriculture led to more reliable and abundant food supplies, which increased the population
Surpluses of food and other goods led to specialization of labor, including new classes of artisans and warriors, and the development of elites.
Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation The last ice age is over about 10,000 years ago. Groups adapted in different ways. Some remained hunter-gatherers while others settled down with agriculture. The switch to agriculture created a more reliable, but not necessarily more diversified, food supply. Agriculturalists has a massive impact on the environment—intensive cultivation of selected plants, the construction of irrigations systems, use of domesticated animals for food and labor. Populations increased; family groups gave way to village life and, later, to urban life with all its complexity. Patriarchy and forced labor systems developed, giving elite men concentrated power over most of the other people in their societies. Pastoralism emerged in parts of Africa and Eurasia. They domesticated animals and led their herds around grazing ranges. They were more socially stratified. They were mobile and they rarely accumulated large amounts of material possessions. They were a conduit of technological change as they interacted with settled populations. Key Concept 1.2: The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Period 1 Citizenship reactions
Believers developed new forms of spirituality and chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to political issues.
New Age Religions
Popular and consumer culture became global
Sports were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations
World Cup Soccer
Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film.
Bollywood Key Concept 6.3: New Conceptualizations of Global Economy, Society, and Culture Communism
Movements to redistribute land and resources developed within states in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, sometimes advocating communism and socialism.
Political changes were accompanied by major demographic and social consequences.
The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements.
The Indian/Pakistan partition
The Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine
The division of the Middle East into mandatory states
The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires.
South Asians to Britain
Algerians to France
Filipinos to the United States Key Concept 6.2: Global Conflicts and Their Consequences At the beginning of the 20th century, a European-dominated global political order existed, which also included the United States, Russia, and Japan. Over the course of the century, peoples and states around the world challenged this order in ways that sought to redistribute power within the existing order and to restructure empires, while those peoples and states in power attempted to maintain the status quo. Other peoples and states sought to overturn the political order manifested themselves in an unprecedented level of conflict with high human casualties. In the context of these conflicts, many regimes in both older and newer states struggled with maintaining political stability and were challenged by internal and external factors, including ethnic and religious conflicts, secessionist movements, territorial partitions, economic dependency, and the legacies of colonialism.
Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the 20th century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to forms of transregional political organization by the century’s end.
The older land-based Ottoman, Russian, and Qing empires collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors.
Political and social discontent
Some colonies negotiated their independence.
India from the British Empire
The Gold Coast from the British Empire Key Concept 6.2: Global Conflicts and Their Consequences Locke
The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced resistance to existing political authority, as reflected in revolutionary documents.
YOU MUST KNOW
The American Declaration of Independence
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter
These ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations, which led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented. Key Concept 5.3: Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform New states developed on the edges of existing empires.
The Cherokee Nation
The Zulu Kingdom
The development and spread of nationalism as an ideology fostered new communal identities.
The German nation
New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism. Key Concept 5.2: Imperialism and Nation-State Formation Empires had difficulties incorporating culturally, ethnically, and religiously diverse subjects, and administering widely dispersed territories. Agents of the European powers moved into existing trade networks around the world. In Africa and the greater Indian Ocean, nascent European empires consisted mainly of interconnected trading posts and enclaves. In the Americas, European empires moved more quickly to settlement and territorial control, responding to local demographic and commercial conditions. Moreover, the creation of European empires in the Americas quickly fostered a new Atlantic trade system that included the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Around the world, empires and states of varying sizes pursued strategies of centralization, including more efficient taxation systems that placed strains on peasant producers, sometimes prompting local rebellions. Rulers used public displays of art and architecture to legitimize state power. African states shared certain characteristics with larger European empires. Changes in African and global trading patterns strengthened some West and Central African states—especially on the coast; this led to the rise of new states and contributed to the decline of states on both the coast and in the interior.
Rulers used a variety of methods to legitimize and consolidate their power.
Rulers used the arts to display political power and to legitimize their rule.
The visual arts
Rulers continued to use religious ideas to legitimize their rule.
European notions of divine right
Safavid use of Shiism
Mexica or Aztec practice of human sacrifice Key Concept 4.3: State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion Traditional peasant agriculture increased and changed, plantations expanded, and demand for labor increased. These changes both fed and responded to growing global demand for raw materials and finished products.
Peasant labor intensified in many regions.
The development of frontier settlements in Russian Siberia
Cotton textile production in India
Silk textile production in China
Slavery in Africa continued both the traditional incorporation of slaves into households and the export of slaves to the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean 4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production As merchant’s profits increased and governments collected more taxes, funding for the visual and performing arts, even for popular audiences, increased.
Innovations in visual and performing arts were seen all over the world.
Renaissance art in Europe
Miniature paintings in the Middle East and South Asia
Wood-block prints in Japan
Post-conquest codices in Mesoamerica
Literacy expanded and was accompanied by the proliferation of popular authors, literary forms, and works of literature in Afro-Eurasia.
Journey to the West
Kabuki Key Concept 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange Populations in Afro-Eurasia benefited nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops.
European colonization and the introduction of European agriculture and settlements practices in the Americas often affected the physical environment through deforestation and soil depletion.
The increase in interactions between newly connected hemispheres and intensification of connections within hemispheres expanded the spread and reform of existing religions and created syncretic belief systems and practices.
As Islam spread to new settings in Afro-Eurasia, believers adapted it to local cultural practices. The split between the Sunni and Shi’a traditions of Islam intensified, and Sufi practices became more widespread.
The practice of Christianity continued to spread throughout the world and was increasingly diversified by the process of diffusion and the Reformation.
Buddhism spread within Asia.
Syncretic and new forms of religion developed.
Vodun in the Caribbean
The cults of saints in Latin America
Sikhism in South Asia Key Concept 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange The new connections between the Eastern and Western hemispheres resulted in the Columbian Exchange.
European colonization of the Americas led to the spread of diseases—including smallpox, measles, and influenza—that were endemic in Eastern Hemisphere among Amerindian populations and the unintentional transfer of vermin, including mosquitoes and rats.
American foods became staple crops in various parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Cash crops were grown primarily on plantations with coerced labor and were exported mostly to Europe and the Middle East in this period.
Maize Key Concept 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange Transoceanic voyaging marked a key transformation of the period. Technological innovations helped to make transoceanic connections possible. Changing patterns of long-distance trade included the global circulation of some commodities and the formation of new regional markets and financial centers. Increased transregional and global trade networks facilitated the spread of religion and other elements of culture as well as the migration of large numbers of people. Germs carried to the Americas ravaged the indigenous peoples, while the global exchange of crops and animals altered agriculture, diets, and populations around the planet.
In the context of the new global circulation of goods, there was an intensification of all existing regional trade networks that brought prosperity and economic disruption to the merchants and governments in the trading regions of the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Sahara, and overland Eurasia.
European technological developments in cartography and navigation built on previous knowledge developed in the classical, Islamic, and Asian worlds, and included the production of new tools, innovations in ship designs, and an improved understanding of global wind and currents patterns—all of which made transoceanic travel and trade possible.
Caravels Key Concept 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes. Productivity rose in both agriculture and industry. Rising productivity supported population growth and urbanization but also strained environmental resources and at times caused dramatic demographic swings. Shifts in production and the increased volume of trade also stimulated new labor practices, including adaptation of existing patterns of free and coerced labor. Social and gender structures evolved in response to these changes.
Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions.
Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations.
Champa rice varieties
The chinampa field system
Waru waru agricultural techniques in the Andean areas
Improved terracing techniques
The horse collar
In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia for foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions.
Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded there production of textiles and porcelains for export; industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China. Key Concept 3.3: Increased Economics Productive Capacity and Its Consequences Islam based on the revelations of the prophet Muhammad, developed in the Arabian peninsula. The beliefs and practices of Islam reflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians with the local Arabian peoples. Muslim rule expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants and missionaries.
In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions in to the indigenous culture.
Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region
Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia
Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia
Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean basin, or along the Silk Roads Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks New trade routes centering on Mesoamerica and the Andes developed.
The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization; use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization.
Silk and cotton textiles
SpicesPrecious metals and gems
Exotic animals Key Concept 3.1: Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms.
In order to organize their subjects, the rulers created administrative institutions in many regions.
Elaborate legal systems and bureaucracies
YOU SHOULD KNOW:
Imperial governments projected military power over larger areas using a variety of techniques.
YOU SHOULD KNOW:
Diplomacy Key Concept 2.2: The Development of States and Empires States and Empires grow in number, size, and population. They frequently compete for resources and came into conflict with one another. In quest for land, wealth, and security, some empires expanded dramatically. They built powerful military machines and administrative institutions that were capable of organizing human activities over long distances, and they created new groups of military and political elites to manage their affairs. As these empires expanded their boundaries, they also faced the need to develop policies and procedures to govern their relationships with ethnically and culturally diverse populations: sometimes to integrate them within an imperial society and sometimes to exclude them. In some cases, these empires became victims of their own successes. By expanding their boundaries too far, they created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage. They also experienced environmental, social, economic problems when they overexploited their lands and subjects and permitted excessive wealth to be concentrated in the hands of privileged classes. Key Concept 2.2: The Development of States and Empires Architecture
Christianity, based on core beliefs about the teachings and divinity of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded by his disciples, drew on Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic influences. Despite initial Roman imperial hostility, Christianity spread through the efforts of missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support by the time of Emperor Constantine.
The core ideas in Greco-Roman philosophy and science emphasized logic, empirical observation, and the nature of political power and hierarchy.
Belief systems affected gender roles. Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety.
Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the to the codified, written belief systems in core civilizations.
Shamanism and animism continued to shape the lives of people within and outside of core civilizations because of their daily reliance on the natural world.
Ancestor veneration persisted in many regions.
The Mediterranean region
The Andean areas Key Concept 2.1: The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions Key Concept 1.3: The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies Hieroglyphics
States developed legal codes, including the Code of Hammurabi, that reflected existing hierarchies and facilitated the rule of governments over people.
New religious beliefs developed in this period continued to have strong influences in later periods.
YOU MUST KNOW:
The Vedic Religion
Trade expanded throughout this period from local to regional
and transregional, with civilizations exchanging goods, cultural ideas,
YOU MUST KNOW:
Between Egypt and Nubia
Between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley
Social and gender hierarchies intensified as states expanded and
Literature was also a reflection of culture.
The “Epic of Gilgamesh”
Book of the Dead Beginning about 10,000 years ago, the Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more complex economic and social systems.
Permanent agricultural villages emerged first in the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. It emerged at different times in Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley, and Sub-Saharan Africa, the Indus River Valley, the Yellow River or Huang He Valley, Papua New Guinea, Mesoamerica, and the Andes. Key Concept 1.2: The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies Period 1=5%
Period 6=20% 5=Extremely well qualified
1=No recommendation Things to keep in mind… The ANZAC (Australia New Zealand Army Core) troops in Australia
The sources of global conflict in the first half of the century varied.
YOU MUST KNOW
Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan
Competition for resources
Great power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany
The economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression
The global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of World War II and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological struggles between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.
The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa, and Asia
The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.
Although conflict dominated much of the twentieth century, many individuals and groups—including states—opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts. Key Concept 6.2: Global Conflicts and Their Consequences Manioc
Afro-Eurasia fruit trees, grains, sugar, and domesticated animals were brought by Europeans to the Americas, while other foods were brought by African slaves.
Foods brought by African slaves
Rice Key Concept 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange Archeological evidence indicates that during the Paleolithic era, hunting-foraging bands of humans gradually migrated from their origin in East Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, adapting their technology and cultures to new climate regions.
Humans used fire in new ways: to aid hunting and foraging, to protect against predators, and to adapt to cold environments.
Humans developed a wider range of tools specially adapted to different environments from tropics to tundra
Economic structures focused on small kinship groups of hunting-foraging bands that could make what they needed to survive. Not all groups were self-sufficient; they exchanged people, ideas, and goods. Key Concept 1.1: Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Neolithic Revolution- the introduction of agriculture, domestication of animals, and a more sedentary life during the later part of the Stone Age Monotheism- the doctrine or belief that there is only one God. Daoism- philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events.