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History of Photography

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kate cornick

on 1 October 2014

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Transcript of History of Photography

History of Photography
The Brownie
Introduced by Kodak in 1900
American inventor George Eastman
Asked camera designer Frank Brownell to design an affordable camera that was easy to use
Cardboard box-style, point-and-shoot
Only cost $1.00
People could now take pictures whenever and wherever they wanted

Our Team
Kate Cornick, Evelyn Harford,
Karen Henderson, Kelly Hobson
& Shannon Moore

1900 - 1925

“The Brownie is considered by many experts to be the most important camera ever manufactured. The reason is that it was produced so cheaply that anyone, not just professionals or people of means, could own it.”
Nude Photography
In the 19th century, artists often used nude photographs as a substitute for live models
In the 20th century, it took on a more erotic nature
Nude photography being used to celebrate and showcase the human body
Photographers hid faces in order to focus directly on the body itself
Edward Weston
Black and White and Sepia photographs were still the norm in the 1950s.
Rise of the 35mm SLR Camera as well as the standardization in design.
35mm SLR cameras
Nikon F-mode (1959)
“CanonFlex” (1959)
1963: Affordable colour film is introduced with the Polaroid
Black-and-white film
First color product was a negative-positive peel-apart process which produced a unique print on paper.
Edwin Land, developed the later SX-70 system, which produced no separate negative to discard.

1972: Polaroid introduced integral film
1977: The OneStep Land camera
1970s were the most popular year for the polariod
Don McCullin
British photojournalist
Career began in 1959
Do you think images like those of Adams, Ut and McCullin are necessary? What role do these photographs play in the West’s understanding of ‘far away’ conflicts?

“I am stimulated to work with the nude body, because of the infinite combinations of lines which are present with every move.”
Imogen Cunningham

“Which of my photographs is my favourite? The one I’m going to take tomorrow.”
Self-portrait using Brownie camera, c. 1900

Young girl with Brownie Camera, c. 1900

Edouard Belin and his Belinograph
Developed in the late 1890s and early 1900s
Arthur Korn and Edouard Belin
Consisted of reducing photographs to signals that could be transmitted by wire to other locations
Belinograph, 1913
Paved the way for better technology
Belinograph Machine

“Nude,” 1927, Edward Weston
“Nude,” 1936, Edward Weston
“Nude,” 1925, Edward Weston
“John Bovington 3,” 1929, Imogen Cunningham
“Spiral Back,” 1929, Imogen Cunningham
1925 - 1950

1950 - 1975
1963: KODAK INSTAMATIC Cameras introduced
Easy-to-use cartridge-loading film
Brought amateur photography to new heights of popularity
50 million were produced by 1970
1963: Canon Color Demi

Kodak invents the world’s first digital camera.

Eddie Adams

1968: Murder of Vietcong by Saigon Police Chief
1969: Adams won a Pulitzer Prize

Konica introduces first point and shoot, autofocus camera
Compact cameras with self image control decisions
Calculated shutter speed, aperture , and focus
Immensely popular with casual photographers

Marc Riboud

1967: Jane Rose Kasmir in front of the Pentagon
Symbol of the Flower Power Movement

Nick Ut

Napalm Girl, 1972
Ut won a Pulitzer Prize, 1973
Some of the most iconic images of the era were horrific

What ethical dilemmas are there for photojournalists covering conflicts abroad?

What purpose, if any is there to publishing graphic images of war? What problems or benefits do you see in publishing images like those of Adams, Ut and McCullin?

What do you think about a code of ethics which state:
“Images should be accurate, complete, contextualized, and fair.”
1975 - 2000
2000 - Present
1980 - 1985
1985: Pixar
introduces digital imaging processor
1983: The first consumer camcorder is released by Sony

1987: Canon EOS System introduced, with new all-electronic lens mount
1990: Eastman Kodak announces Photo CD as a digital image storage medium.

1987 - 1990
1990: Photoshop released
Larry Clark
Nan Goldin
Sally Mann
Most common subject is youth
Illegal drug use, underage sex, violence
Subculture: surfing, punk rock  or skateboarding

Tulsa/Teenage Lust
by Larry Clark
“Once the needle goes in, it never comes out”

Earliest works: black-and-white images of drag queens, celebrations of subcultural lifestyle
The Ballad of Sexual Dependency, 1981
Intensely personal, spontaneous, sexual, and transgressive photographs
Nan Goldin
Body Farm
by Sally Mann
At Twelve
by Sally Mann
What do you think of the photography of these three artists? Is it shocking, apt, beautiful, disgusting, etc?

Do you think that documenting life as it is aka. decaying bodies, drug addicts, etc. should be the role of photographers?
Do these photographs cross lines of “human decency”? If so, should they be censored?
Nan Goldin
1999: Nikon D1, first DSLR camera
2000: Live preview, Olympus E-10 DSLR
2003: Canon affordable DSLR cameras

2003: Olympus, self-cleaning image sensor
2006: Nikon discontinued most film cameras
2008: Nikon D90, the first DSLR camera that could also record video
2008: Polaroid discontinued their instant film
Impossible Project sells instant film for classic Polaroid cameras
Rebirth of the instant film trend
Film Cameras
2000: J-SH04 released in Japan
2002: Sanyo releases first camera phone in North America
Today, majority of mobile phones have a built in camera
Photo editing applications: Instagram and VSCO Cam
2013: Chicago Sun-Times fired all 28 photographers
May 2014: four hired back
Smartphone Cameras

iPhone 4s
Canon S95
Improving the megapixels in imaging sensors, speed of focus, and ISO performance
DSLR prices dropping
Christopher Chute from IDC predicts Nikon won’t be around in 5 years
Future for DSLR
New ethical considerations
Photoshop: gives the photographer significant power to alter the truth
“Never do something to a photograph that you wouldn’t want revealed.”

Photo Editing
Canadian Association of Journalists
Integrity of images
Caption staged photos
Label altered images
Society of Professional Journalists
Never distort content
Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible

Code of Ethics
No additions or deletions to the subject matter of the original image
No excessive lightening, darkening or blurring of the image
No excessive colour manipulation

Reuters' PS Guidelines
Brian Walski
Narciso Contreras
Do you think either photographer should have been fired for their photo editing?
“Changes in density, contrast, colour and saturation levels that substantially alter the original scene are not acceptable.”Do you agree or disagree with this guideline?

How do you feel about removing elements in a photo that may be viewed as ruining its composition?
Do you think this should be ethical?

When do you think it is ethical to crop a photo? Do you think graphic images should be published online with a warning?

1926: Vacublitz, first flashbulb made from aluminum foil sealed in oxygen, is produced
1927: General Electric produces flashbulbs and markets them for commercial use
1924: Leica I produced by Oskar Barnack is first 35mm format camera
Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex producing a 6x6 cm image on roll film
Albert Renger-Patzsch publishes The World is Beautiful, Karl Blossfeldt publishes Art Forms in Nature
1931: Strobe photography
1932: Inception of Technicolor for movies
1932: Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke, Edward Weston, et al, form Group f/64
1933: Brassaï publishes Paris de nuit
1936: Development of Kodachrome, the first color multi-layered color film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera

1939 and 1940: Synchronized flashbulbs are marketed for commercial use
1948: Hasselblad in Sweden releases SLR for commercial sale, Pentax in Japan introduces the automatic diaphragm
Photography and the Holocaust

On Violence and War

“Photo-journalistic images of war and of the cruelties carried out in these conflicts tested the limits of what we look at and how we look; their display necessarily involves a risk.”
Widely circulated images from the past decade
Do you think it was ethical for photographers to conceal the faces of their nude models, regardless of their intent? For example, to draw attention to the human body.
In your opinion, was nude photography in the early 1900s more artistic than nude photography today?
Intimate and controversial
Work deals with death and perceptions of sexuality
Do you think these images of the Holocaust would be more powerful as breaking news, or do they gain more meaning as artifacts of history?
What is more deceptive: images that are altered through editing, or images staged to promote a particular agenda?
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