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APA Formatting and Style Guide
Transcript of APA Formatting and Style Guide
help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper
Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis:
the author’s name and the date of publication
for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and a page number
Summary & Paraphrase
Provide the author’s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase.
What are the 4 reasons to use APA?
Use formal language
Write in 3rd person
Spell out acronyms (first time used)
Family, Youth and Community Sciences (FYCS)
Helpful APA website – Purdue Online Writing Lab https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
General APA Format
Every page of your essay should:
Include a page header (Title, all caps) in the upper left-hand corner and
the page number in the upper right
APA (6th ed.)
Preparing your (KEEPRA) papers in FYCS
General APA Format
In Text Citations
Scholarly Publications v Popular Press
Social Media Citation Guide
APA Formatting and Style Guide
Preparing Your Paper
See p. 228 in APA
Font (12 pt Times New Roman)
Double spacing throughout
Margins (1” on all sides)
Paragraphs – indent 1st line of each paragraph
Abstarct is not indented
Page #’s – (begin w/ title page, use “Running head:” along w/ page #’s)
Your essay should include four major sections:
Number the first text page as page number 3
Type and center the title of the paper at the top of the page
Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break
Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical, in-text citations
Format tables and figures
Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.
Double-space reference entries
Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines
Order entries alphabetically by the surname of the first author of each work
Invert authors’ names (last name first followed by initials)
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
EX: The perfectly formatted paper: How the Purdue OWL saved my essay.
Capitalize all major words in journal titles
Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals
Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase
Include the author’s name, year of publication, and page number
Keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information
Include the author’s name in the signal phrase, followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.
When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation:
Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g.:
According to Xavier (2008), “….” (p. 3).
Xavier (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3).
Use such signal verbs such as:
acknowledged, contended, maintained,
responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc.
Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases when they discuss past events
Two or more works
When the parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list: the author’s name, the year of publication—separated by a semi-colon.
When citing a work with two authors, use:
In the signal phrase, use “and” in between the authors’ names
In parenthesis, use “&” between names
Works with 3-5 Authors
When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis
(Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999)
In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses
(Harklau et al., 1993)
Works With 6 or More Authors
When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.”
Smith et al. (2006) maintained that…
(Smith et al., 2006)
*When in doubt, the most accepted way is the parenthetical citation*
When citing a work of unknown author:
use the source’s full title in the signal phrase
cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis
According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System” (2008)
Articles and Chapters = “ ”
Books and Reports =
When Citing an Organization
mention the organization the first time you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in parenthesis the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations
When Citing Same Last Name/Author
When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names
(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)
When citing two or more works by the same author and published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) after the year of publication to order the references
Smith’s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants…
Citing Personal Communication
When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication
Do not include personal communication in the reference list
Citing Electronic Sources
When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading
See pages 49-51 in APA (6th ed) for examples
Periodicals include journals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletters
Online Journal without Digital Object Identifier (DOI):
When to cite?
Cite ideas, theories, concept, direct quote or research have DIRECTLY influence your work
Self Plagiarism – presenting the same material as though it were new. This includes submitting the same paper for 2 different course assignments
See pp. 169-172
See pp. 41-49
Online Journal with DOI:
According to Schick (2009)
Presents original research, reports, or reviews and evaluates material that has already been published for scholars in the field
For specialized readers - scholars or professionals
Often has "Journal of" in the title
Often abstract at the beginning of article
Plain appearance, may contain graphs, charts, tables, and have little color
Little or no advertising
Job announcements or ads relating to scholarly interests
Authors are creditable scholars or professionals in a specialized field
Publish to share findings or promote academic and professional standing
Credentials listed, often associated with an institution of learning or professional organization
ALL S.P’s go through a Peer review process:
Official editorial process
Involves review & approval by the author’s peers (experts in their subject area)
Purpose – to ensure an objective standard of quality in articles accepted for publication
a professional association, society, research association, or academic institution
Journal of Marriage and Family, Journal of Youth Development, Journal of the Community Development Society
Most journals are issued:
monthly, quarterly or annually
Scholarly Publications Quiz
Is Time Magazine a scholarly source?
Is New York Times a scholarly source?
Is WebMD a scholarly source?
Is Wikipedia a scholarly source?
Is CNN a scholarly source?
Is YAHOO/MSN news a scholarly source?
Is the Alligator a scholarly source?
According to Schick (2009)
Provides articles designed to:
Inform (Time & Newsweek, Men’s Health)
Entertain (US Weekly, Cosmo, Maxim)
Contains articles on diverse popular interest or current events
For general readership appeals to the layperson
Target audience is a 6th grade reading level
Designed to be attractive & appealing, with much use of color and illustrations
Non-technical, understandable; high school reading level
Contains lots of advertising for a wide variety of products/services
Professionally produced, in color
Staff authors or freelance writers
Stories usually unsigned
Most magazines are published weekly or monthly
RARELY cite sources or provide references
Popular Press Examples
Atlanta Journal Constitution
If the article appears on consecutive pages, separate the first and last page numbers with a hyphen (-)
Do not abbreviate page numbers
i.e. "205-212" instead of "205-12."
If the article appears on nonconsecutive pages (starts on one and jumps to another), give each page number or range of pages, separated by commas, as is "1, 3, 5-12."
For newspapers with sections, precede the page numbers with the sections, as in "A1, A3."
For newspapers only, precede the page number(s) with "p." or "pp."