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Chemistry!

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on 20 August 2014

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Transcript of Chemistry!

Have you ever wondered
Chemistry!
Chemistry is the study of the
make-up,

structure
and
properties
of substances and the
changes
that occur to them.


It is the study of stuff!
The stuff that makes up the world we live in!

The science word for "stuff" is of course,
matter.

Matter is anything that
occupies space
and
has mass.
What is chemistry?
Everything
in life is one of two things...


Only two kinds of things...
An atom is the smallest unit of a substance

We cannot see atoms, even with the most powerful microscopes.
Every type of matter is made of atoms
Are made up of subatomic particles
Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus
Protons have a positive charge
Neutrons have no charge, are neutral
Electrons are even smaller and have a negative charge
Atoms
Why things act the way they do?
Why foods change color when they cook?
Why cakes rise?
Why popcorn pops?
It is all explained by chemistry!
Matter
or
Energy
That makes it simple!)
(
First we'll find out about matter
Milk, alfredo sauce
Pizza, vegetable stew
Water
(you can see what is mixed together)
(You cannot see
what has been mixed)
Only made of one
type of matter.
Baking soda for example
"homo" = same
"hetero" = different
(combination of elements)
Cannot be broken down
Is not chemically combined
Solutions
One material is dissolved into another. The material dissolved is called the "solute".
Example: Koolaid, Instant Tea

(Remember...solutions are a
homogenous mixture; they are not
chemically combined, but physically.)

Elements

There are over 90 naturally occurring elements
An element only contains one type of atom
The number of protons in the nucleus determines which element it is.
The Periodic Table

The atomic
number
is how many protons are in the nucleus
The atomic
mass
is the number of protons PLUS the neutrons in the atom
Electrons are so small the mass is insignificant
Atoms are the smallest
particles of matter
The table is made of two groups:

Metals and Nonmetals

Metals are usually shiny at room temperature whereas nonmetals are not
Most nonmetals are gases at room temperature
Potassium,
calcium, silver
Compounds = substances in which two or more elements have chemically combined

The basic unit of a compound is a molecule.

Chemical formula - a combination of symbols and elements to make up a compound
Example: H2O is the chemical formula for water
BONDS
A chemical bond is a force that holds two atoms together.
There are two types of chemical bonds:
Ionic - electrons are transferred from one atom to another ( a metal to a non metal)

Covalent - Atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Covalent Bonding
Chemical and Physical Changes
Physical change: changes the physical shape, size, or physical state without changing the chemical makeup. Ex: ice melting

Chemical change: Color, odor, or flavor change. Ex: baking bread or fermenting grapes
Full transcript