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Place-based GIS

In past decades, space-based geographic information systems have already made important progress. In contrast place-based GIS (PBGIS) are not yet well developed, . This research focuses on exploring the state of the art of PBGIS,
by

Song GIS

on 18 December 2013

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Transcript of Place-based GIS

Place-Based GIS (PBGIS)
Design of Place-Based GIS
Platial Analysis
An Expedition of PhD Research
Conclusions
Song Gao
October 10, 2013

Ten Categories (Aristotle)
substance, quantity, qualification, relative, when,
pose, having, doing, being-affected
Place (Where):
Position in relation to the surrounding environment.
Research Background
Space and Place
Placenames
Descriptions
Environment
Affordance
Experience
Culture
Semantics
Space V.S. Place
Accuracy, Precision
v.s.
Ambiguity, Vagueness
Sense of Place
Cognitively defined
Hierarchically organized
Semantically interlinked
Accuracy and Precision
Accuracy is the degree of veracity (truth);
Precision is the degree of reproducibility.
Ambiguity, Vagueness
Coordinates
Distance
Direction
Projection
Topology
Scale

Research Questions
discrepancies between hydrography and terrain
Precision is usually expressed as the number of digits.
Double-precision
Place
A placename is usually taken to differentiate one place from another or as a mental handle for communication.
New York
New York
State
New York
City
Other inhabited places
Getty TGN
Some terms and expressions related to place are vague.
e.g., near, far, downtown
Where's Downtown?: Behavioral Methods for Determining Referents of Vague Spatial Queries
Montello, Goodchild, Gottsegen, and Fohl (2003)
50% Confidence
100% Confidence
multiple toponyms: historic, vernacular, languages
New Orange, New Amsterdam
Heterogeneity
v.s.
Homogeneity
Spatial
Heterogeneity
and dependency are general properties of geographic information. (Goodchild, 2001)
Geospatial data are full of variations such that it is impossible to generalize certain attributes from one location to the whole space.
Homogeneity
a place normally has a boundary defined by either a geopolitical or social entity.
Inside a place, the distinguished characteristics of landscape, specialty, or culture are homogeneous.
Sense of Place
Proximity
v.s.
Similarity
Individuals are used to measuring
distance
in space as part of their everyday experience.
Q: Does physical proximity matter in place?
Inferring Thematic Places from Spatially Referenced Natural Language Descriptions.
Adams and McKenzie (2012)
In
spatial analysis
, most functions rely on the definition of proximity or neighbor.
density
patterns
Hot Spots Analysis
Spatial Association Analysis
However, when discussing specific attributes of places, such as population, similar places are not close to each other.
In fact, they are dispersed in space and hierarchically organized.
Rank-Size
Tobler's first law of
geography
: "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things".
-- Waldo Tobler (1970)
Space
Place ?
"Every place is related to other places, but similar places have more related structures or functions".

Absoluteness
v.s.
Relatedness
Where is UCSB ?
Point: (lat 34.41254, long -119.84813)
Spatial Approach-Absoluteness
Polygon: a region
Where is UCSB ?
Platial Approach-Relatedness
UCSB is one part of
UC system
. The main campus is located on a 1,022-acre site near
Isla Vista
and
Goleta
,
California
,
United States
, approximately 8 miles from
Downtown

Santa Barbara
and 100 miles northwest of
Los Angeles.
Multi-Dimension
v.s.
Order, Hierarchy
Why Spatial is Special ?
2D, 3D Space
Space-Time
Hierarchical
structure is common to both physical systems and to human cognition,
e.g., river networks, administrative divisions.
Spatial Hierarchy
Platial Hierarchy
Golledge (2002)
Order and Consequence
Song Gao (2013)
Relative Distance
Song Gao (2013)
Get on US-101 S
Take the exit toward Sheffield Dr.
Wayfinding and Navigation
Turn left to E Valley Rd.
Sharp right onto Romero Canyon Rd.
Slight right to stay on Bella Vista Rd.
Turn left to stay on Romero Canyon Rd.
Data
System
Function
Place Names in Gazetteers (ADL Gazetteer at UCSB)

Natural Language Descriptions about Place

Social Media

Linked Data Cloud
Question: What data structures are better to present, store, and manage the platial data ?
Resource Description Framework (RDF)
Spatial Thinking
textual place names,
linguistic place descriptions
Semantic System
Decision Support
ontology of place
spatial concept ontology
semantic reasoning
location intelligence
place inference
Platial Join
Platial Buffer
Join
Analogous to spatial join, the purpose of the platial join is to attach the properties or characteristics from the join entities to the target place
using semantics
.

In other words, the
Platial Join
operation involves the aggregation of properties (attributes) from one or multiple place entities S to the target place entity T based on merge rules and their
topological predicates
P, including the“part-whole” relation, the “locatedAt” relation, and other spatial relationships e.g., touch, overlap, equals, contains, inside, and intersects.
Gao, S., Janowicz, K., McKenzie G., Li, L. (2013)
Platial Join on DBpedia
Buffer
Currently, there are two understandings of
platial buffers
:

One method applies the Euclidean-distance buffer on place, which must consider cognitive context due to the uncertainty of qualitative spatial reasoning about distances and directions referring to places.
An alternative way to process it, is based on the topological distance (
connectivity or hierarchy
) and
semantic relations
between places.
Gao, S., Janowicz, K., McKenzie G., Li, L. (2013)
What are the distinctions between place and space in GIS?

How to link place to space (gazeteers) and link space to place?

How to develop platial theories, models and techniques analogous to their spatial counterparts?

What are the basic elements of PBGIS?

When and where do we need PBGIS?

What is platial uncertainty?
First law of
cognitive geography
: "People believe closer things are more similar". -- Montello, Fabrikant, Ruocco, Middleton (2003)
Place
-- Song Gao (2013)
Linking place to space
Spatial
Information
Systems
Platial
Information
Systems
Functionality
Spatially
extensive
variables take values that are true
only of entire region, such as total population.
spatially extensive or intensive variables
Platial Join
Population
Density
Spatially
intensive
variables could potentially be true of every part of an area, if the area were homogeneous, such as densities, rates, or proportions.
Platial Configuration (Schematic Maps)
Marne-la-Vallée
Paris is partOf Île-de-France
Marne-la-Vallée is partOf Île-de-France
The fundamental characteristics of place: ambiguity, homogeneity, relatedness, hierarchy, order ...
Topology is important in both spatial and platial worlds.
Design of PBGIS
Platial joins and buffers
Challenges
Build the semantic relationships between places
Formalize the platial functionality
Publications in 2013
Gao, S., Janowicz, K., McKenzie, G., and Li, L. (2013; forthcoming): Towards Platial Joins and Buffers in Place-Based GIS. ACM SIGSPATIAL COMP 2013.
Gao, S., Hu, Y., Janowicz, K., and McKenzie, G. (2013; forthcoming): A Spatiotemporal Scientometrics Framework for Exploring the Citation Impact of Publications and Scientists. ACM SIGSPATIAL GIS 2013.
Gao, S. and Goodchild, MF. (2013, July) Asking Spatial Questions to Identify GIS Functionality. 4th International Conference on Computing for Geospatial Research and Application (COM. Geo 2013).
Gao, S. and Goodchild, MF. (2013, Sep) A Scalable Geoprocessing Workflow for Big Geo-Data Analysis and Optimized Geospatial Feature Conflation based on Hadoop. CyberGIS AHM'13.
Gao, S., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., and Ma, X. (2013). Discovering Spatial Interaction Communities from Mobile Phone Data. Transactions in GIS, 17 (3), 463-481.
Gao, S., Wang, Y., Gao, Y., & Liu, Y. (2013). Understanding urban traffic-flow characteristics: a rethinking of betweenness centrality. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40(1), 135-153.
Wang Y, Gao, S., and Liu, Y. (2013). Exploration into urban street closeness centrality and its application methods. Geographical Research, 32(3), 352-364.
Ongoing
Gao, S., Li, L, Li, W, Janowicz, K. and Zhang, Y. (2014). Constructing gazetteers from volunteered geographic information based on Hadoop. Computers, Environment, and Urban Systems (revision).
Li, L., Gao, S. and Goodchild, MF. (submitted) A GIScience Perspective on Place. International Journal of Geographical Information Science.
Acknowledgments
Krzysztof Janowicz, Michael F. Goodchild, Helen Couclelis
Jack Dangermond
STKO Lab Members
Spatial@UCSB Members
Geography IT
Cohort 2012
GIS Song
Email: sgao@geog.ucsb.edu
Place name is ambiguous.
California
Data
Data
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