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regulation of temperature, water, and waste

Jean Battinieri

on 1 March 2018

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Transcript of Homeostasis

regulators vs. conformers
Animals must exchange energy and materials with their environments:
food- provides chemical energy
oxygen-is needed for cellular respiration
carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes must be removed
what goes in must come out
Direct transfer of heat between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other
Heat is conducted from an object of higher temperature to one of lower temperature
Conduction - direct transfer of heat between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other
Four Processes account for heat gain or loss
Homeostasis requires a balance of materials and energy
Regulation of body temperature
enzymatic reactions increase as temperature increases - until temp reaches a point where enzymes will denature
each animal has an optimal temperature
thermoregulation helps keep body temperature within a range that enables cells to function most effectively
the organism needs to balance the amount of heat gained with the amount of heat lost between itself and its environment
regulation of the internal environment
Rotate axis and
drag frames
to change
regulators - uses mechanisms of homeostasis to control internal change when the external environment changes
need ENERGY to regulate
thermoregulators-keep body temperature constant even when the external environment changes
osmoregulators - maintains constant concentration of solutes in blood and interstitial fluid
conformers - allow some conditions within their bodies to vary with certain external changes-
they live in environments that are stable
don't osmoregulate
Convection -the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface
The transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface -like when a current of air passes over the body
Radiation - the emision of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero, including an animals body, the environment, and the sun
The emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero. Transfers heat between objects not in direct contact like when an animal absorbs heat from the sun
Evaporation - the removal of heat from the surface of a liquids that is losing some of its molecules as gas
The removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas. Can cool animals - only if the air around it is not saturated with water molecules - less than 100% humidity
Ectotherm vs. Endotherm
have a low metabolic rate and the amount of heat it generates is too small to have much effect on body temperature
their body temperatures are determined by their environment
ex. invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and reptiles
have a high metabolic rate which generates enough heat to keep its body warmer than the environment
ex. mammals, some birds, some fish, many insects
advantages -
can remain active for long periods of time (long distance running or flight)
can function at different temperatures from the environment
disadvantage needs food to get energy
Water Balance and Waste Disposal
Osmoregulation - management of the body's water content and solute concentration
movement of solutes
active and passive transport
metabolic wastes must be dissolved in water when they are removed from the body (except carbon dioxide)
important wastes - nitrogen containing wastes - come from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids
as these compounds are broken down nitrogen in removed in the form of ammonia (NH3) which is often converted into urea or uric acid but this needs ATP to occur
aquatic organisms often excrete ammonia directly into the water which can diffuse into the surrounding water
land organisms excrete mainly urea (CO(NH2)2) which is is made in the liver
urea is not as toxic so it can be stored and it doesn't need as much water to make it so allows organisms to retain needed water
need to use energy to make it
Osmoregulation - regulation of water
Gas exchange - regulation of oxygen
Thermoregulation - regulation of heat
Gas exchange - sometimes called respiration
DO NOT confuse this with cellular respiration which involves the transformation of energy
IT IS the uptake of O from the environment and the discharge of CO to the environment
This exchange is needed for cell respiration to create ATP
Oxygen is found in the atmosphere - in both the air and dissolved in water
Movement of Oxygen gas and Carbon Dioxide gas occurs through the process of diffusion
Three most common respiratory organs
Osmoregulation - water regulation
-balancing water gain with water lost
Two solutions to balance
1. be isoosmotic with the surroundings- only marine organisms can do this - lives in an isotonic environment to the cell - osmoconformer
2. be an osmoregulator - controls its internal osmoregularity - they must maintain

all organisms want to keep their respiratory surfaces moist and they want to have a high surface area for the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide (respiratory gases) between the cells and either the air or water.
Control centers in the medulla oblongata set breathing rhythm - sensors in the blood detect pH levels (affected by carbon dioxide levels) and Oxygen levels - and breathing levels are adjusted based on these
if they live in a hypotonic environment they will to discharge water
if they live in a hypertonic environment they will take in water
by regulating the water intake and output it allows organisms to maintain internal balance of water
energy is needed in order to do this - they need to use active transport (ATP) to concentration gradients to allow water in and out

- regulation of body temperature
4 physical processes account for heat gain or loss
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