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Down Syndrome

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Candra Cook

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome
By: Candra Cook & Shelby Hayse
History of Down Syndrome

In 1866 John Down first described Down syndrome.
Term not accepted until early 1970's
1959, Jerome Lejeune discovered extra chromosome in people with Down syndrome.
During the first half of 20th century, a majority of children with Down syndrome were placed in institutions.
Poor living conditions
Neglect-medical, nourishment, love, etc
Abuse- physical and emotional
Lack of any education or developmental help
Low life expectancy
Down syndrome is a condition due to an abnormality with chromosome 21 that causes intellectual impairment and physical abnormalities.
1 in 691 babies in the US are born with Down syndrome
Most common Chromosomal condition
Cause in currently unknown.
Research has shown an increase as a woman ages.

3 Types of Down syndrome: Trisomy 21, translocation, and mosaicism.
Can be determined at birth due to physical traits however it can also be "diagnosed" during pregnancy through blood testing and ultrasounds.
Medical Risks
Flattened facial features
Small head
Short neck
Protruding tongue
Upward slanting eyes
Unusually shaped ears
Poor muscle tone
Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm.
Small mouth
Space between toes
Relatively short fingers
Excessive flexibility
All people with Down's syndrome will have some degree of intellectual disability.
Children with Down's syndrome do learn to crawl, walk, talk, potty train, etc.
Delayed developmental milestones.
Wide variation in ability.
Range from severe to very mild.
About 40% of people with Down syndrome have a mild case of intellectual disability.

About half of babies with Down's syndrome are born with heart problems; surgery
Hearing and vision problems
Thyroid disorder
Poor immune system
Respiratory problems-coughs and colds

Children with Down syndrome have been included in regular education classes already.
In some cases depending on the severity, students are placed in a resource room and integrated into specific courses and in some cases students are in a full inclusion environment.
Today we see more and more students with Down syndrome graduate from high school with regular diplomas, attend college, and some cases, receive college degrees.
Quality educational programs, stimulating environment, good health care, and positive support help people with Down syndrome to reach their full potential.

Inclusion classes
The primary objective is to make children be comfortable interacting with other classmates.
Set up a friendly environment where students can come out of their hesitation in interacting with others.
Trained Aid - The student may be accompanied by a trained aide when participating in a mainstream classroom, they can provide a teacher with helpful information for accommodations.

General Accommodations
Students with Down Syndrome are generally visual learners.
Workbooks are not generally effective.
Manipulatives are useful.
Use hands-on materials in creative ways
(e.g. throw a soft ball at a student if you want him or her to answer a question).
Assist students with exercise before writing
(e.g. push palms together, push hard on desktop, squeeze and relax fists).
Homework is effective:
to inform parents about what child is doing in school
to provide extra practice with basic concepts.

Visual Learners
Change of location and subject teachers can be refreshing for students with Down syndrome.
Breaks between classes can allow for valuable social interaction with peers, as well as exercise.
When students are ready or upon request, they should be allowed to change classes independently, meet aides at arranged classrooms and spend lunch and break times with their peers.
If students need assistance, it is preferable to use peer support rather than adult staff support during these times.

Use prompts, cues and lighting to capture their attention.
Try using different colored or textured backgrounds for work.
Minimize or remove distractions
(place fewer pictures on the wall or problems on a page).
Pay attention to seating.
Avoid seating students with Down syndrome near a window, door or high traffic area.
Give immediate feedback or praise to ensure that students associate rewards with their efforts.

Keeping Attention
Use labeling or verbal associations.
Break information down into small clusters and sequence ideas.
Make tasks interesting and meaningful for the student.
Teach rehearsal strategies.
Provide opportunities to practice in different contexts and use multi-sensory approaches
(hands-on activities tend to work best).
Show patterns and teach memory tricks.
Repetition is the key to learning!

Memory and Retaining Concepts
Assign well-explained tasks which are suitable for the student‘s mental stage.
Materials should be meaningful and familiar.
Allow students to help develop rules or design of lessons.
Use positive language.
Rather than saying "That‘s wrong", say,"Try another way".‖
Encourage peer buddies and social rewards.
Reward independence.
Help students maintain motivation and develop an internally-based reward system by gradually fading out your cues and rewards.


Use materials and activities that are age-appropriate and which reflect the students’ interests
Develop a planning matrix, which identifies a student’s reading opportunities during the school day
Incorporate visual and tactile cues
Give students opportunities for practice
Review learned concepts frequently to encourage retention
Maintain high expectations for your students with Down syndrome.

For many students with Down syndrome, reading is strength. Research demonstrates that teaching reading to students with Down syndrome enhances and facilitates language development because they are typically visual learners.
Children with Down Syndrome may have had multiple surgical procedures by the time they reach school age.
The student may be hindered by
Low muscle tone
Sleep apnea
Hearing and vision problems
Speech intelligibility
The teacher must be aware of the student’s conditions and ensure their health and safety.

Challenges for the Regular Educator
Health and Safety
The teacher must make sure the child with Down syndrome has learned how to behave appropriately in social situations.
They need to understand about rules and routines and be able to cooperate with their peers.
In group work, they must be able to participate and respond appropriately, without dominating or becoming totally passive.
They need to learn how to share and take turns.
Outside, they need to understand the rules of playground games.

Challenges for the Regular Educator
Social Inclusion

National Down Syndrome Congress -www.ndsccenter.org
National Down Syndrome -www.ndss.org
National Association for Down Syndrome -www.nads.org
The Down Syndrome Educational Trust -www.downssyndrome.org.uk
Ups for Downs – parent run organization support group
Noah’s Dad - Resource for new parents
Parent to Parent USA – support for parents of children with special needs
The Teacher Partnership Network – Promoting Acceptance and Inclusion
Educator’s Manuel for Supporting Students with Down Syndrome

Best Buddies
Best Buddies is a nonprofit organization dedicated to establishing a global volunteer movement that creates opportunities for one-to-one friendships, integrated employment and leadership development for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.


"Down Syndrome Facts”(2012). Ndss.org. National
Down Syndrome Society. Retrieved February 19, 2014 from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/Down-Syndrome-Facts/#sthash.LBfk2gnq.dpuf

"History of NADS.” (n.d.). Nads.org. National
Association for Down Syndrome. Retrieved February 19, 2014 from http://www.nads.org/history/.

"Myths & Truths.”(2012). Ndss.org. National Down
Syndrome Society. Retrieved February 19, 2014 from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/Myths-Truths/

Orfano, F. (2012). Helping Children with Down
Syndrome Succeed in the Classroom. Retrieved from http://www.brighthub.com/ education/special/articles/52112.aspx

Supporting the Student with Down Syndrome in
Your Classroom (2010). Retrieved from http://www.dsawm.org/LinkClick.aspx? fileticket=EdUFKA910ek%3D&tabid=87

"What is Down Syndrome”(2012). Ndss.org.
National Down Syndrome Society. Retrieved February 19, 2014 from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome/What-Is-Down-Syndrome/#sthash.W4C3wHS8.dpuf

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