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Rocks and Minerals
Transcript of Rocks and Minerals
Natural--not man made
Crystalline structure -- specific arrangement of atoms
Chemical composition-- each mineral has its own specific atoms (ex: ice is H2O)
1. COLOR -- not a great way, some minerals are many colors
2. Streak --
-Powder left behind when scratched against a stone.
-Each mineral has ONE color streak that NEVER changes
3. Luster -- Shinyness
Metallic -- Shiny
Non-Metallic -- Not shiny
resistance to being scratched
You can only scratch something with a mineral that is HARDER than it.
Moh's scale 1-10
DIAMOND is the hardest mineral
never changes for each mineral
also called "specific gravity"
6. Cleavage / Fracture -- How it breaks
Cleavage - flat
Fracture - rough
7. Crystal structure
Arrangment of atoms
**Responsible for chemical and physical properties
rocks (natural solids)
Processes that make Igneous rocks:
MELTING and SOLIDIFICATION
Types of molten rock:
MAGMA - molten rock UNDER ground
LAVA - molten rock ABOVE ground
Sedimentary rock (pieces cemented together)
Metamorphic rock (rocks that are changed)
creates INtrusive rocks (rocks IN the ground)
creates INTRUSIONS -- areas where magma intrudes another rock
when lava EXits the ground, it makes
these rocks form EXTRUSIONS on the surface
What determines crystal/grain size of the rocks?
TIME-- The SLOWER it cools the LARGER the crystals
Magma cools SLOWER, so it makes LARGE Crystals
Lava cools FAST, it makes SMALL crystals
EXTREMELY fast cooling makes NO crystals
Texture (not how it feels)
COARSE-- larger "blotches" or cyrstals
FINE-- small, sand-like grains
GLASSY-- smooth glass-like (NO GRAINS)
VESICULAR--gas trapped inside
CLASSIFYING IGNEOUS ROCKS:
Color, Density, Composition:
--FELSIC rocks are LIGHTER colored, LOW density,
and made of ALUMINUM and SILICON
--MAFIC rocks are DARKER, HIGH density,
and made of IRON and MAGNESIUM
What minerals make up each rock?:
Draw a straight line down from the mineral
Sedimentary rocks ( pieces of sediments)
CLASTIC- from pieces of rocks
CRYSTALLINE (Chemical evaporates) - when water leaves behind a rock
ORGANIC/BIOCLASTIC - from things that were once living.
(1. Weather, 2. Erosion, 3. Deposition)
made by 4. COMPACTION (water squeezed out by weight of the Earth)
made by 5. CEMENTATION (sediments glued together)
When water evaporates and leaves a rock behind
**ONLY MADE OF ONE MINERAL
Salt water leaves behind rock salt (Halite)
Pieces of something that was once LIVING glued together
LOOK for shell pieces (not always)
How sedimentary rocks are different:
1)Most are made from “Clasts” or sediments
2)Usually clasts are rounded (rolling in water)
3)Clasts are sorted into sizes
4)Some are organic and may have fossils
5)May see parallel layers of sediments in rocks
6)Some may have ripple marks or mud cracks
7)Chemical rocks are made of just ONE mineral, NOT sediments or clasts.
Identifying the clastic rocks :
--By size and shape of the sediments glued together
If Pebble-size sediments check..
rounded pebbles--> Conglomerate
angular pebbles --> Breccia
If sand-sized--> Sandstone
If silt-sized--> Siltstone
If Clay-sized--> Shale
Metamorphic rocks -- rocks that form from
already existing rocks that get changed from
HEAT AND PRESSURE
Layers of minerals called FOLIATION
How are they formed?
INTENSE HEAT AND PRESSURE rearranges the crystals = RECRYSTALLIZATION
CONTACT METAMORPHISM -- rocks contact magma, changing them
REGIONAL METAMORPHISM -- pressure from tectonic plates bends the rocks, AND MAKES THEM DENSER. Happens in mountains.
FOLIATED -- Layered (from pressure pushing crystals into layers
Non-FOLIATED -- Non-Layered
Fine-grained layered: Slate
Identifying FOLIATED rocks:
thin layers, can't see small crystals =
shiny slate =
Medium layers with shiny MICA crystals =
Thick layers , called "BANDING" =
The rock cycle: any rock can become any other kind of rock
Identifying NON-FOLIATED rocks:
stretched out pebbles =
grainy rock that scratches glass =
grainy rock that does NOT scratch glass, Reacts to acid =
dark rock made near intrusions or extrusions =
very shiny coal -->
***Minerals form by "Crystalization" or "Recrystalization"
Minerals are made of 1 or more
The same 8
make up most of the
Proof you are looking at igneous rocks
(fine or coarse only):
Shale (a sedimentary rock.. add pressure to it, and it becomes
--> SLATE --> PHYLLITE --> SCHIST --> GNEISS
Porphorytic rocks have both fine and coarse grains.
How could this have happened?
Minerals as resources
Each person will use 3.5 MILLION pounds of minerals
Most of these are LIMITED and NOT RENEWABLE
Used based on their properties
NY makes cement materials, sand, gravel, salt (brought here from the last glacier)
Hw: Topic 11 Questions 22-29
Environmental issues in extracting resources
Destruction of the environment
resources are non-renewable
The return of the "Hachure marks"
The area of contact metamorphism, next to magma
will be surrounded with Hachure Marks